This chapter focuses on the main social and legal barriers faced by parents, when living, moving or travelling within the European Union. Six European countries considered to be representative of different family law and social policy models are analysed and compared with a non-EU country (Israel). Even though some convergences appear among countries in the progressive legal recognition of different family forms and in the support of work–family balance, the cross-national differences are still significant in both family policies and family law. More traditional countries, such as Croatia and Italy exhibit low family policy support coupled with ‘prohibitionist’ rules in access to parenthood, while the less traditional ones such as Denmark and the Netherlands, show higher family support and wider legal options to become a parent. In Spain and Israel, wider legal options to be recognized as a parent co-exist with comparatively low public support for families. Other developments are observable in Hungary, characterized by relatively high public support for families and narrow legal recognition for family diversity forms.
Joëlle Long, Manuela Naldini and Arianna Santero
Leydi Johana van den Braken, Dorota Lepianka and Trudie Knijn
This chapter analyses why intra-European migration remains rather low. Traditional migration models based on ‘push–pull’ factors attempt to explain migration from an economic perspective while relying on strict assumptions of individuals’ rationality and perfect information. The chapter integrates ‘push–pull’ factors that stimulate migration with ‘stay–stay away’ factors, which discourage migration. It suggests that migration decision is based on an evaluation of ‘push–pull’ incentives with regard to ‘stay–stay away’ incentives. The results confirm that ‘stay–-stay away’ factors contribute to the explanation of migration intentions. Individuals who score higher on the ’stay–stay away’ index are less likely to envisage migrating at some point in the future. Including both ‘push–pull’ and ‘stay–stay away’ factors in a single model confirms our supposition as to the complementary nature of both groups of predictors and points to the usefulness of a comprehensive ‘push–pull’-’stay–stay away’ framework. Furthermore, our results show that young Europeans are more likely to consider migration for non-economic reasons, while at the same time signalling reluctance to give up their economic security at home.
Trudie Knijn and Mara A. Yerkes
A basic function of welfare states is guaranteeing social protection to all citizens. European citizenship aims to create a level playing field for citizens of all Member States. In the process, some categories of citizens tend to be overlooked, or even deprived of previous rights. In this chapter, we focus on young adults as a vulnerable category of citizens. They appear to suffer the most from high unemployment rates, and are encouraged in the Europe 2020 strategy to be mobile to explore opportunities outside their country. However, the rights of young, mobile Europeans are not per se guaranteed if they migrate. A critical analysis of the Youth on the Move program, and recent National Reform Programmes of Member States identifies key discrepancies between EU goals for young adults’ mobility and their social, political, legal and economic position.