Edited by Jacqueline Bhabha, Jyothi Kanics and Daniel Senovilla Hernández
Lyubov Zhyznomirska and Svitlana Odynets
With the long-established diaspora and high level of participation of its nationals in contemporary international migration flows, Ukraine is a fertile case study for examining the effects of globalisation on migration. Drawing on the existing research, the authors look at which Ukrainians have been more prone to engage in international labour migration since the 1990s, and under what conditions. The chapter highlights both structural conditions and individual motivations of Ukrainian migration abroad that account for why it has exhibited movements that are both east (i.e., to Russia and the CIS countries) and west oriented (to Europe and North America). The chapter reviews the effects of labour migration on Ukrainian society. It also examines the knowledge we have about the internal displacement of Ukrainian populations since the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in March 2014 and the eruption of military action in the Donbas (the Donetsk and Luhansk regions), and the effects of these events on migratory movements within and outside Ukraine.
The chapter discusses the concept of climate change refugees. Interest in who may move, where to, under what conditions and with what consequences in a world affected by climate change is substantial. The concept is nevertheless controversial, as its merits are easily challenged on methodological, legal, political or other grounds. The chapter discusses these challenges in relation to three prominent debates: how many people may move; how to conceptualise those who move; and how to respond to those who move. The complexities inherent to quantitatively determining who may move are highlighted, and the sometimes overly deterministic nature of naming and framing those who move is presented. The chapter then discusses the various response frameworks to address people movement in the climate change context. It concludes that much depends on how the issue is framed, as a matter of adaptation, protection or justice. As a result, a fractured response framework has materialised, which may or may not converge in future.
We review U.S. immigration history during the period from 1607 through 1874. During these years, few laws restricted immigration, but there were restrictions on who could become a citizen. We argue that America’s colonial ties to Britain and restrictions on naturalization encouraged emigration from Northern and Western European countries and discouraged emigration from other locales. The 1790 U.S. Census supports this assertion. In that year, more than 80 percent of the U.S. population (and 97.8 percent of the free population) were either immigrants from Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, or France or descendants of someone from one of these countries. We contend that the ancestral mix of the Colonial population fostered a cultural transfer from Northern and Western Europe to the American colonies. Further contributing to this transfer is that 88.5 percent of all immigrant arrivals between 1820 and 1874 were also from Northern or Western Europe.
Sarah Dickerson and Caglar Ozden
This chapter outlines the economic and social implications of diaspora externalities and return migration, with a specific focus on origin country policies to enhance potential benefits. Examples of diaspora externalities include increased integration to the global economy through trade, finance and other economic linkages as well as knowledge and capital transfers. Providing an overview of the extensive literature on the presence and size of such spillover channels and benefits, the chapter presents a systematic analysis of the design and effectiveness of government policies to engage their diasporas, especially highly skilled members. The chapter reviews the most prominent examples of these programmes, especially the specific economic incentives they provide, filling a gap in the literature. Successful programmes are designed with clear and specific objectives, budgets and target groups: they aim to fill gaps in the labour market and attract beneficiaries who will remain in the country after the programme benefits expire. They have built-in evaluation mechanisms and minimum durations.
We consider whether key changes in U.S. immigration policy coincided with significant structural breaks in the levels of immigrant inflows. Tests are performed for the overall data and for cohorts of traditional source countries and non-traditional sources; for various geographic regions and sub-regions; and for specific countries. We find a large number of structural breaks that correspond with implementation of important legislative acts (e.g., Chinese Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1917, Hart-Celler Act, etc.), and many of the breaks coincide with statistically significant changes in the average levels of immigrant inflows during the periods prior to and following the respective policy change. Thus, the empirical evidence strongly supports the notion that immigration policy significantly affects the levels of immigrant arrivals, and gives credence to the assertion that U.S. immigration policy has shaped the demographic composition of America’s population and, by doing so, has likely shaped the nation’s culture.
This chapter analyses the migration flows and trends in post-Soviet space in the context of globalisation processes. The evaluation is focused on some important aspects of globalisation: opportunities of visa-free regimes; free labour mobility; liberal v. restrictive migration policy control; and labour migrants’ behaviour reflected in interrelations between their illegal and legal share of the labour market. The chapter explores the uniqueness of the visa-free regime across former Soviet space and transformations of visa control since 1990 from liberal to restrictive and back to liberal regimes. Short periods of liberalisation policy clearly demonstrate this approach’s success, but corruption and bureaucratic ineffectiveness prevent the future realisation of such plans. In contrast, restrictiveness is ineffective; but policy on integration of labour migrants finds little response in Russian society and among the elite. Unsurprisingly, labour migration flows toward Russia show some trend for reorientation towards the EU that could deepen the demographic crisis in Russia.
This chapter offers an introduction to the relevance of a gender perspective on issues of migration and globalisation. It argues for the importance of the feminisation of migration by making a distinction between a quantitative and a qualitative approach, which can be further articulated between a subjective and a structural level. It emphasises the relevance of the debate around the notion of social reproduction which scholars see as the basis for inequality and differentiation between women at the global level. The chapter provides a short historical overview of how the research on ‘gender and migration’ has come into shape, from a hidden arena of enquiry to the highly visible topic of today. It concludes with a remark on the self-reflective mood of this scholarship in recent times, and thus auspicates for an expansion of a feminist approach to migration towards other objects of analysis seen today by many scholars as a necessary completion towards the aims of this literature.