Forest management and timber production requires long-term investment and decision-making and therefore requires greater consideration of the potential impacts of climate change compared to pasture or annual crops. Despite this, there has been relatively limited attention paid to adaptation in production forestry compared to other sectors such as water or infrastructure management. This chapter investigates adaptation policy for forestry from the perspective of national and international resource networks using examples from three jurisdictions: British Columbia in Canada; Sweden; and Victoria, Australia. These jurisdictions were chosen to represent different climatic conditions, forest ownership and management structures. The authorsdescribe the legislative and policy environment for forestry and the current and potential impacts of climate change on forests and forest management in these locations. They then review the measures currently in place to support adaptation and the policy options that could be implemented to support more effective adaptation. In doing so, they consider the current constraints on adaptation and the challenges for achieving adaptation in policy and practice in forestry sectors.
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Rodney J. Keenan, Harry Nelson, E.C.H. Keskitalo and Johan Bergh
Christoph Clar and Reinhard Steurer
Climate change adaptation strategies have mushroomed at all levels of government in recent years. While many studies have explored barriers that stand in the way of their implementation, the factors determining their potential to actually mainstream adaptation into various sectors are less clear. In this chapter the authors aim to address this gap for two international, six national and six local adaptation strategies. Although located at three different levels of government, the 14 cases studied here represent ‘one-size-fits-all’ governance arrangements that are all characterized by voluntariness and a lack of institutionalization. Since adaptation strategies are relatively weak coordination hubs that are unable to force adaptation onto sectoral policy agendas, they rely mainly on sectoral self-interest in adaptation that is largely dependent on problem pressure. The authors conclude that one-size-fits-all governance arrangements are rarely adequate responses to complex challenges such as climate change.
Amy Z. Zeng and Jing Hou
The success of any supply chain depends on the collaboration of the chain partners through some form of coordination mechanism, which can range from information-sharing to sophisticated contractual terms; and sustainable supply chains are no exception. This chapter provides a review of the status quo of research efforts pertinent to collaboration and coordination in three types of sustainable supply chains: socially responsible supply chains, green supply chains and closed-loop supply chains. In the last type, two detailed examples of reverse supply chains of electronics are provided to demonstrate how the coordination mechanism is designed and determined. For future research efforts, several common threads implied by this comprehensive review, as well as some broad areas considering country-specific situations, are summarized and presented.
Jonathan Kirk, Thomas Samuels and Lee Finch
In this chapter the mis-selling of collective investment schemes (‘CIS’) products is analysed. CIS are important financial products because they make up a very substantial proportion of all retail investment in the UK and EU. The different types of authorised CIS are explained, such as unit trusts, open-ended investment companies, UCITS and AIF. The definition of CIS under FSMA and the UCITS and AIFM Directives is considered by reference to recent authority. The chapter also covers the framing of claims relating to unlawful schemes, unlawful promotion and misconduct in relation to authorised schemes.
Given that the wording, interpretation and application of existing investment protection treaties are hardly conducive to the contemplation of legitimate environmental objectives, this chapter puts forward several alternative drafting proposals for future treaties and investment contracts. Negotiators of a follow-up instrument to the Kyoto Protocol could include a dispute resolution mechanism for disputes related to climate change projects, while future international investment agreements could incorporate social, environmental and human rights provisions and investment contracts could stipulate a hierarchy of potentially conflicting norms. The restrictions of the international rules on treaty interpretation when it comes to the interfield interaction of standards are evident, but could be addressed through the concept of ‘interpretative context’ and the ejusdem generis principle. Finally, arbitral tribunals are encouraged to take a climate change project-friendly approach and consider objectives beyond the investment context. Under these conditions, both the promotion and protection of climate change investments as well as green policies of States could be mutually reinforced.
This chapter provides an overview of significant research issues in comparative public administration and suggests future research themes and topics. The focus of the chapter is on four areas of academic interest over the last few years and includes: the context of reform for the administrative systems and the conditions of reform; public sector reforms per se; reform of civil service systems and the politicization of the public sector; and multi-level governance including local government. The chapter suggests a series of areas for research including in sub-fields of public administration in order to ensure there is an advance in understanding these fields in ways that can have a real-world impact as well as developing theoretical models.
Zsuzsa A. Ferenczy
The book set out to assess the EU’s capacity to shape China’s development along international norms. This chapter concludes that in the midst of dramatic changes in the distribution of global power, Europe’s ability to influence China’s development has been limited. In spite of institutional innovations brought by the Lisbon Treaty, dealing with China’s growing clout on a European level remains a challenge. Anxious and divided, Europe has been constrained by its multi-layered system of governance, the normative divergence and the series of crises it is undergoing. These factors have damaged its power of example, hindering cooperation. Yet, while Beijing has dismissed working together in human rights, in the environment Europe’s power of example and Beijing’s power of interest have supported cooperation, enabling Europe to slowly, albeit selectively, socialize China with international norms. The fundamental normative divergence has hindered cooperation in civil society, rule of law, and development in Africa.
David Quinn, Kyle Beardsley and Jonathan Wilkenfeld
In this concluding chapter, we pull together the main findings of each of the chapters and group them so as to capture both the central scholarly themes of the Research Handbook and those insights that we believe will be of particular relevance to the policy community. Readers are encouraged to focus in on those themes that pique their interest, and then go to those parts of the Research Handbook, identified by the authors working on those themes, for more detailed explication of these themes. A major theme of this Research Handbook has been that crises in the international system have become increasingly complex over time and are perhaps even more complicated nowadays than during the pinnacle of ethnic conflict during the early to mid-1990s. This is exemplified most clearly by the dizzying array of actors and interests involved in recent crises in Syria, Libya, Yemen, and Ukraine. The trend toward increasing complexity can largely be attributed to a related increase in crises with characteristics of “gray zone” conflicts, a recent term developed to describe crises and conflicts that contain elements of both international rivalry, including among great powers, and domestic conflict, in which actors deliberately keep hostilities at a level short of war and act via proxy in order to avoid attribution and undesirable international attention.
IHL cannot guarantee humanity in armed conflicts. This is true because it is not sufficiently respected, and States are unwilling and unable to accept mechanisms that efficiently enforce it, which would anyway be astonishing for a situation – armed conflicts – that would not exist if international law was already regularly and efficiently enforced. This is also the case because IHL rules cannot protect everyone everywhere at all times. Rather, IHL rules operate based on many distinctions between armed conflicts and other situations of violence that are not covered by IHL, IACs and NIACs, civilians and combatants, military objectives and civilian objects and own and occupied territory. Such binary distinctions are often difficult to apply to the multifaceted realities of contemporary armed conflicts, which only rarely involve the regular armies of well-organized and well-established States. Those distinctions also leave parties and individuals leeway to manipulate (in the absence of compulsory adjudication) IHL, and their consequences are not always obvious from a humanitarian point of view.
E.C.H. Keskitalo and B.L. Preston
As a conclusion, this chapter synthesizes common findings regarding what enables or constrains adaptation, including issues associated with specificsectors or geographies, scale, and extent of adaptation policy implementation (what has enabledadaptation to progress beyond policy formulation to implementation). The chapter also considers the challenges arising from continued use of a linear model for decision-making that focuses on addressing perceived knowledge deficits associated with climate change, but neglects other barriers arising from social, cultural, institutional and political system factors. Furthermore, the chapter argues for the need for broader integration of various perspectives from social and, in particular, policy studies to comprehend adaptation (and mitigation) policy challenges.