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Violet V. Cuffy

Tourism higher education has long had a significant role in preparing a skilled and educated workforce for a dynamic and rapidly growing industry. However, compared to other academic fields, research and innovation in tourism higher education has not benefited from the same levels of growth observed within the industry. For instance, lifelong learning (LLL) is a globally accepted phenomenon at both government and institutional levels. Nevertheless, the discourse on lifelong tourism education is limited. In Scotland, the Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) is currently utilized as the main instrument for achieving an extensive program that meets government’s agenda for providing education for life, work and industry. Nevertheless, in the area of tourism there has been very little focused engagement and adoption of lifelong learning approaches. This chapter seeks to address this gap by examining the Scottish experience in general, and in particular two universities: the Academies Model at Queen Margaret University (QMU) and the Lifelong Learning Centre at Strathclyde University. Acknowledging the diverse nature of the tourism industry, tourism curriculum space, ongoing debate and challenges of its design, structure and delivery, the chapter proffers Lifelong Learning for Tourism Higher Education (LLLfTHE), a holistic collaborative approach for advancing a lifespan national tourism curriculum.

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Jamie Murphy, Nadzeya Kalbaska, Lorenzo Cantoni, Laurel Horton-Tognazzini, Peter Ryan and Alan Williams

Empowering and commoditizing, with predicted educational outcomes ranging from a utopian to a dystopian future, the media and academia are making sweeping generalizations about Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Such hyperbole about innovations is common, and often misguided. Historically, online learning pedagogy began with cognitive-behaviorist approaches followed by social learning, connectivism and community learning. The chapter’s discussion of MOOC pedagogy, success measures, types and categorizations and an online learning continuum should prove useful for educators and administrators considering MOOC initiatives or research. This chapter helps ground the hyperbole, reviewing MOOCs as the latest _ not the last _ in a long line of distance learning innovations, and positioning MOOCs as one of four proposed categories of online learning. The study has a strong educational focus, exemplified by differences between the two main MOOC pedagogies, extended (xMOOC) and connectivist (cMOOC), and MOOCs’ abysmal completion rates. Educators, administrators and industry should also benefit from discussion of a major MOOC unknown: viable business models. Although there are no proven or definitive models, MOOCs offer exciting opportunities to explore new and innovative education delivery. The chapter does, however, suggest a few strategies for implementing MOOCs and ways to measure MOOC success. Due in part to the newness of MOOCs and the small discipline size, the few existing hospitality and tourism examples is a limitation of this chapter. Regardless, the universality of distance learning and MOOCs extends to hospitality and tourism.

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Janne J. Liburd and Anne-Mette Hjalager

The aim of this original contribution is to present a model of institutional innovation and to apply it to tourism higher education. First, the concept of institutional innovation is introduced. Next, changes over the past five decades in tourism higher education and the curriculum are presented. They illustrate how innovations in tourism higher education have evolved in response to, but also in isolation from the larger society and socio-economic contexts in and by which tourism exists, which point to the presence and absence of institutional innovation. The model includes intuitive and strategic innovation approaches in tourism higher education and a juxtaposition of whether these approaches are aligned or detached. Offering a macro-perspective with innovative examples on tourism education and learning, this chapter dissects trends and issues for contemporary developments in tourism higher education by reference to the many contributions of this volume.

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Florian Aubke and Anja Hergesell

The role of social interactions in the student experience has long been acknowledged and forms the basis of many modern pedagogical approaches. The exploratory study presented in this chapter builds on the concept of network-based social capital and discusses network formation and network characteristics in an intercultural tourism student setting. Social capital describes the opportunities embedded in social relations, thus the resources of others, paired with social relations to these others, occupy critical significance. The dynamics of social network evolution and the consequences of network formations are highly context specific. Here, the interest lies in social relations among tourism students and the impact of those relations on student performance. Social network analysis is the methodological basis of this study, thus driving data collection as well as analysis. The study showed that the formation of relationships between students who recently commenced their studies does not occur randomly, but is largely driven by attribute similarities such as gender and nationality. The study also showed that network structure and student performance are associated – students who are sought after in friendship networks perform better in their studies. The objective of this chapter is to raise awareness among tourism educators of the importance of social capital building among students. Tourism educators, who are faced with an increasingly international and heterogeneous student base, may use the relational approach and findings presented here to engage the student body and foster social relations in the classroom to benefit the student experience.

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Patrick J. Holladay

Online teaching is becoming more important as digital technologies are expanding rapidly. The online teaching and educational environment has expanded into the realm of tourism. Online teaching should not be considered differently from traditional teaching – with the obvious exception of the technology needed. Teaching online should not be overly foreign or intimidating. The process of lesson planning and assessment is the same as in a face-to-face classroom. The most important thing to remember is that the learning outcomes, the activities to facilitate learning outcomes and the assessment of learning outcomes are equivalent to a traditional setting. The development of curriculum comes first and then the appropriate technology to deliver the curriculum is selected – never the other way around. This will ensure the constructive alignment of learning outcomes, activities and assessments. Equally important to planning is the understanding of the technology used to deliver the course materials. Digital literacy can be a challenge to both learners and instructors. This chapter recognizes that there must be inherent theoretical pluralism when addressing online learning. The theoretical underpinnings of this chapter draw from the constructivist learning model as applied to online learning as well as transformative, experiential and authentic e-learning. This chapter will first examine why online teaching in tourism is important and some theoretical foundations to support this assertion. Next, applications to curriculum and appropriate technologies – using the Teaching Education Futures Initiative five value sets framework – will be explained. Finally, some of the interesting future developments in online tourism teaching will be discussed.

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Freya Higgins-Desbiolles

This chapter offers an analysis of recent developments fostering the embedding of Indigenous content in the tourism curriculum. It is derived from both conceptual understandings and empirical work, based on: deep engagement with Indigenist research and pedagogy; experience in developing and offering an undergraduate course on the subject of the interface between tourism and Indigenous peoples; and a critical engagement with the literature on these issues. The justification for engaging in embedding Indigenous content in the tourism curriculum is largely twofold: a recognition of Indigenous rights and their application to tourism studies, and the multiple and significant benefits Indigenous perspectives and knowledges may offer the tourism field. As a result of more than ten years of offering this course, the chapter offers a set of recommendations for embedding Indigenous content in the tourism curriculum which have been developed from the experiences, insights and pedagogical learnings. These findings are particularly useful for institutions and groups who wish to consider the possibilities, best practices and benefits of embedding Indigenous content in their curriculum. But the example set in this niche of tourism studies does hold wider implications for the larger field of tourism studies. As argued here, engagement with Indigenous perspectives and worldviews shifts the focus of the curriculum from conventional tourism concerns of tourist demand and product development, to rights of host communities, social capacities of tourism and alternative paradigms. Thus it is argued here that engagement with the Indigenous interface with tourism can offer pathways to new perspectives which promise much for the development of tourism knowledge.

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Edited by Pierre Benckendorff and Anita Zehrer

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Georgios C. Papageorgiou

The chapter considers the features of the tourism curriculum before discussing the merits and challenges involved in attempting to assure the quality of academic practice by employing a standardization approach. While the inherent value and the direct or indirect contribution of quality assurance mechanisms to promoting educational quality are unequivocal, the chapter discusses a number of conceptual contradictions in approaches towards operationalizing these mechanisms (notably between consistency and conformity, setting optimum as opposed to minimum standards, and focusing on the spirit/principles rather than the letter/procedures of quality assurance mechanisms). It also observes that when the emphasis is primarily on accountability and verification rather than enhancement and excellence, a quality assurance system may not yield its maximum benefits. The chapter relates the discussion to existing research on tourism education and attempts to identify the influence of factors related to the requirements of the tourism and hospitality industry, to the priorities of educational establishments, to academic management and administration procedures, and to individual academics’ approaches.

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W. Glen Croy and John Willison

The focus of tourism programs on industry and career outcomes has raised concerns about opportunities to equip graduates with the ‘practical wisdom’ needed to be ‘philosophical practitioners’. It is proposed that the development of research skills could achieve some of these outcomes. A review of tourism graduate, employment and employability profiles highlights common demand for broadly characterized research skills. Reflecting the academics’ propositions, employers and graduates have also identified research skills as important. Research is a systematic process of learning, and is based upon six interrelated skills of: embarking and clarifying; finding and generating; evaluating and reflecting; organizing and managing; analyzing and synthesizing; and communicating and applying. The Research Skill Development (RSD) Framework combines these research skills with different levels of autonomy. The RSD is applied in tourism for research skill assessment, enhancement, and to design learning environments. Reflections highlight RSD advantages of clear and explicit setting of expectations, common conversation artifacts, time saving, and rewards for skill enhancements. In addition to adoption of the RSD, future direction should be for multiple student exposures to it. The use of RSD in tourism highlights many aspects needing consideration for its effective implementation.

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Massimo Morellato

The aim of this chapter is to offer a contribution on the changing trends in technology-enhanced learning and the development of digital competence in tourism education. It critiques the tendency to use digital instruments to position learners as passive ‘end-users’ of technologies adopted ‘for them’ by teachers and institutions. Without disregarding the relevance that technology-enhanced learning could have in developing information literacy in learners and sometime in educators, this chapter draws attention to a broader perspective. It is argued that engaging students as active producers in the employment of the latest technology in their studies and in the co-construction and mobilization of knowledge is of the utmost importance. This chapter advocates the need for better attention to the learning process rather than to the learning of products in online and mobile educational initiatives, and, further, to the need for attention to the ethical dimension of digital competence. The chapter presents a project conducted at a New Zealand university as an example of ‘rethinking’ technology-enhanced learning and the students’ online presence. The project uses a combination of experiential, collaborative and problem-based learning approaches where wikis, ePortfolios, iBooks and mobile augmented reality apps are used with a maieutic approach and a critical attitude of ‘healthy disenchantment’ rather than a glorification of the technology itself. Details about the project and reflections about emerged issues and implications are described to stimulate further discussion on the role of digital technologies in twenty-first-century learning. Lecturers and tutors might find in this chapter some similarities to or inspiration for their class activities, whilst program coordinators might benefit in their approach to multi-modal literacy and knowledge management as cross-disciplinary objectives.