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Trudie Knijn and Mara A. Yerkes

A basic function of welfare states is guaranteeing social protection to all citizens. European citizenship aims to create a level playing field for citizens of all Member States. In the process, some categories of citizens tend to be overlooked, or even deprived of previous rights. In this chapter, we focus on young adults as a vulnerable category of citizens. They appear to suffer the most from high unemployment rates, and are encouraged in the Europe 2020 strategy to be mobile to explore opportunities outside their country. However, the rights of young, mobile Europeans are not per se guaranteed if they migrate. A critical analysis of the Youth on the Move program, and recent National Reform Programmes of Member States identifies key discrepancies between EU goals for young adults’ mobility and their social, political, legal and economic position.

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European Citizenship in Perspective

History, Politics and Law

Edited by Jan van der Harst, Gerhard Hoogers and Gerrit Voerman

Civil, economic, political and social rights are at the centre of the concept of European citizenship. In this volume, the focus is on the political-constitutional dimension of European citizen­ship, which is discussed from the perspective of several disciplines – history, constitutional law and political science. It provides a multi-faceted account of the evolution of European citizenship and its institutionalization, explaining why certain rights came into existence at a certain time and focussing on several key actors involved, such as the European Court of Justice.
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Governance and Political Entrepreneurship in Europe

Promoting Growth and Welfare in Times of Crisis

Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Charlotte Silander and Daniel Silander

The economic crisis has had severe and negative impacts on the EU over the last decade. This book focuses on a neglected dimension by examining European political entrepreneurship in times of economic crisis with particular emphasis on EU member-states, institutions and policies. The main focus is on the role that the political entrepreneur can play in promoting entrepreneurship and growth. It is argued that the political entrepreneur and political entrepreneurship can positively influence the conditions for entrepreneurial activity and business.
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Edited by Jan van der Harst, Gerhard Hoogers and Gerrit Voerman

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Mónica Ferrín and Francis Cheneval

EU citizenship faces problems similar to other heterogeneous and fragmented political entities. This chapter reviews how the EU has managed to accommodate rivalling claims under a unique form of citizenship and how it deals with problems derived from the multi-layered nature of citizenship. In eight case studies, the chapter highlights institutional and substantive solutions that have stood the test of history and we draw lessons for the EU regarding the rationales of state formation, the inclusion of certain communities, and the link between community and territory. The case studies vary in terms of heterogeneity and territorial political power. All have faced problems concerning the coexistence of culturally distinguished communities within the same territorial borders. In recent years, two types of claims have developed in EU Member States: (1) too much interference of the EU in national matters; (2) economic asymmetry of the periphery against the ‘core’. One of the lessons from this chapter is that the EU is not facing conflicts framed around incompatible claims to unity of cultural identity, but conflicts regarding political competencies and economic strategies that can be tackled with structural reforms within the paradigms of federalism and democracy.

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Theocharis Grigoriadis

The chapter discusses the economic logic and political incentives that led to the emergence, peak, and contraction of Kulturkampf in the Catholic lands of Prussia between 1871 and 1878. It argues that Bismarck’s Kulturkampf reveals the fallacies of secularism as a series of enforced state policies: (1) De facto dominance of the religious majority over religious minorities that are in much higher need to preserve their public and social status; (2) Transformation of priests into bureaucratic experts. A game-theoretic model defining Kulturkampf as a static game between priests and the executive is proposed. The willingness of priests to accept the government’s offer and be transformed into bureaucratic experts varies. Individualist priests are easier to recruit as they care more about their personal welfare than social distribution by the Church, whereas the reverse holds for collectivist priests. Nevertheless, the success of the Kulturkampf depends on the effective recruitment of collectivist priests and their entry into formal politics in favor of the executive. The distinction between collectivism and individualism matters here, because priests can either care for the social welfare activity of the Church or their individual welfare. Secularization is not devoid of religion, as it consistently attracts more individualist rather than collectivist priests, and thus advocates a transition to more Protestant forms of government.

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Sandra Seubert and Oliver Eberl

Modern democratic citizenship is, on the one hand, constructed as a bounded concept, intimately linked to the nation state, yet on the other it entails a universalistic promise of inclusion and is potentially unbounded. Since the ‘nationalisation’ of citizenship in the nineteenth century, the concept refers to a coherent status with particular rights and duties based on a collective identity, a ‘we’ perspective, defined by those being born within the bounded territory of a ‘nation state’. Yet the universalistic promises of citizenship are at odds with a bounded membership status that goes along with exclusions for social, gender and racial reasons and this potentially creates a transformative dynamic. These conflicts and dynamics are also mirrored in the development of European citizenship. This chapter sheds light on these questions by investigating historical and normative trajectories and social struggles that brought about modern notions of citizenship. It analyses the boundaries and promises, ambivalences and tensions embodied in the democratic concept of citizenship, and finally shows how they are mirrored in the institution of European citizenship, as well as in the discussion about its future.

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Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

Social rights in the EU continue to be primarily determined by decisions at the nation-state level. Despite the discourse of a European Social Model, Member States pursue very different approaches to social rights, leading to highly divergent outcomes. This chapter analyses social rights at three levels: (1) social rights at the level of the European Union; (2) social rights at the level of Member States; and (3) the social rights of EU mobile and EU migrant citizens. It will be argued that social rights at the EU level are only weakly developed compared to economic rights. Moreover, social rights at the level of the Member State continue to be mainly determined by domestic factors, although austerity policies, promoted by EU institutions, had a negative impact on social rights in countries severely hit by the economic and subsequent sovereign-debt crisis. Social rights of EU migrant citizens remain primarily focused on workers, while rights for economically inactive EU migrant citizens continue to be severely restricted within the first five years of residence.

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Theocharis Grigoriadis