Migration has been intensifying and diversifying since the 1990s. According to the United Nations International Migration Report, there were 244 million international migrants in 2015 – 10 per cent more than only five years earlier, in 2010 (international migrants are here defined as people living in a given country who are either foreign born or have foreign citizenship). Of these, more than two-thirds (71 per cent) lived in high-income countries, while the developing regions hosted 29 per cent of the world’s total international migrant population. Socio-economic transformations such as those induced and intensified by globalisation processes are usually drivers of increased international migration. They intensify grievances and opportunities that lead people to seek better living and working opportunities in distant lands while also facilitating transport and communication. This Handbook focuses on the dynamics that link migration and globalisation processes from economic, social, political and cultural perspectives, looking at the challenges that emerge for labour markets, welfare systems, families and cultures, and institutions and governance arrangements as well as norms. This introduction discusses in detail, and with reference to the relevant literature, the interconnection between migration and globalisation, and presents the structure of the Handbook.
Ulrike H. Meinhof
The chapter discusses globalised culture flows from a bottom-up, empirically grounded perspective of musicians moving and mixing in transnational fields. This privileges the mobilities of artists whilst not neglecting artistic form, creations and productions. The first section shows the ways in which migration of people and musical forms has given rise to many new musical creations. The second foregrounds musicians as a sub-section of people on the move, arguing the case for transnationalism as the most appropriate theoretical frame The chapter also underlines the need for combining research of internal migration within a country with research on international, cyclical and return migration between localised places and countries. It highlights the advantages of a transnational perspective on individual artists’ movements, arguing that movements and encounters of individual artists put into focus both the inequalities and barriers erected against migrants, as well as the possibility of a strategic activation of their transcultural capital.
Oleg Korneev and Karolina Kluczewska
This chapter looks at the role of the globalised third sector in migration governance, and presents major theoretical and empirical contributions focusing on different aspects of the third sector’s, often ambiguous, role in migration politics and policy. It starts with a discussion on the third sector’s growing involvement in the migration field, then proceeds with an analysis of the third sector as new governors aspiring to shape migration regimes regionally and globally. The chapter uncovers complex patterns of interactions between the third sector and other actors in global migration governance, paying attention to aspects such as financial dependence of the third sector on donors, subordinated politics and competition for funding and prestige. The picture that emerges from this chapter indicates that the third sector is far from being and acting as a unified actor in migration governance.
This chapter surveys the governance of migration in Europe and efforts to deal with the fragmentation that is an inherent feature of a policy field that includes very different types of migration as well as differing institutional contexts for the management of migration in European countries. To assess the causes and effects of fragmentation, the chapter asks three questions. First, how can the relationship between migration and governance be conceptualized? Second, how can governance be defined and this definition applied to European migration governance? Third, what is the relationship between the post-2012 migration/refugee crisis and European migration governance? To address these questions, the chapter pays close attention to the understandings of migration held by élite actors within European migration governance systems. It is argued that these understandings – and the factors that influence them – can act as powerful drivers of migration governance in Europe.
Edited by Anna Triandafyllidou
We close by summarizing the work that has been presented thus far, and by offering a discussion of potential related opportunities for public policy. We begin by revisiting the relationships and the corresponding questions that form the basis for this project. We then provide an accounting of the work—what we have done, how it has been done, and what we have learned. This summary provides a comprehensive discussion of what our findings suggest can be said about the past, the present and, to a lesser degree, the future. Having these details in place also allows for discussion of the associated policy implications. It is argued that maintaining or increasing/expanding the current level/source country composition of immigrant inflows is preferable to reducing/restricting inflows. A potential divergence between perceived and real costs and benefits associated with immigration and how to narrow such a difference is also discussed.
Ilse van Liempt
As Castles and Miller have rightly noted, we are living in an ‘Age of Migration’ (2003) and global mobility is on the rise. At the same time we are also witnessing increasing intensification of border control in various parts of the world. This has given rise to a global ‘industry’ that makes migration accessible to those whom States have identified as unauthorised migrants. The global migration industry involves all sorts of actors, including transnational criminal organisations, often referred to as human smugglers. Even though the body of academic literature on human smuggling is growing, the field (still) suffers from sensationalist media accounts, public and political agendas that want to ‘fight’ smuggling, and difficulties in generating data. The empirical work that is available on human smuggling is disciplinary bound, and often regionally focused or case study based. This chapter provides an overview of various disciplinary readings of the literature on human smuggling and identifies the gaps in the literature.
We introduce the gravity model of international migration as the general framework for our econometric analysis, and we discuss our data sources and the construction of related variables. Having presented the empirical models and data, we examine data that span the period from 1820 through 2015 to identify the determinants of annual immigrant inflows to the U.S. and of annual inflow share values. Our models are estimated both with and without time (i.e., year) and source country fixed effects terms, and alternative functional forms and modified empirical specifications are estimated to test the robustness of our primary results.
Jajati Keshari Parida and K. Ravi Raman
This chapter explores the trends and patterns of international and internal migration with respect to India, including their underlying causes and socio-economic consequences, using secondary data compiled from various sources such as the United Nations Global Migration Database (UNGMD) and the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India. The chapter explores the nature, growth and composition of international and internal migration and the consequent implications in terms of growth, remittances, urbanisation and so on. Following an introductory section, the chapter explains the trends and patterns of international migration – its underlying reasons. It also provides details of remittances and their role on poverty, economic growth and overall socio-economic development in India. It then explores the trends and patterns of internal migration, and its causes and consequences on urbanisation in India, before providing concluding remarks.