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Victoria Chick

The Bloomsbury Group were friends, mostly from their undergraduate years in Cambridge, who began to meet at 46 Gordon Square in 1904. They talked far into the night about absolutely anything, supported each other in their work and at play, and blew away the stifling fog of Victorian values. Their lifestyle was revolutionary for the time. Most of them were writers or artists; Keynes, whose destiny lay within the Establishment, was their exception – an exception that proved their unwritten rule, that friendship was their highest value. They were not only hugely productive, they broke new ground, in painting (Vanessa Bell, Duncan Grant), art criticism (Roger Fry), biography (Lytton Strachey) and fiction (Virginia Woolf). They gave another dimension to Keynes’s life and influenced his thinking and his writing style.

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Mary Gilmartin and Anna-Kaisa Kuusisto-Arponen

In this chapter the authors discuss critical geographies of migration through a focus on two key sites: the border and the body. They outline critical approaches to the study of borders, which include discussions of specific borders (European Union, USA–Mexico, detention sites). They also detail the effects of the hierarchization of migrant bodies, and elaborate on this through a discussion of migrant experiences at work. The authors argue for the importance of bringing together geopolitical and biopolitical approaches to the critical geographies of migration, in a way that emphasizes embodied migrant practices. The chapter concludes by highlighting some ways in which approaches to the critical geographies of migration could be further developed.

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Piero Ferri

This chapter reproduces the second article that I co-authored with Minsky. The article’s aim is to discuss the state of the literature prevailing in the late 1980s, dominated by the IS–LM approach and by its critics. The monetarist and the new classical economics attack routed the IS–LM version of the Keynesian theory and the large-scale econometric models, removing them from the center of macroeconomic research. However, they were more successful as a critique of the IS–LM orthodoxy than as a basis for fruitful research and policy analysis. Post-Keynesian economists also attacked IS–LM orthodoxy, mainly because it mis-specified “the economic society in which we actually live”. It is suggested that a convergence between the new and the post-Keynesian economics might be fruitful.

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Building a Normative Order in the South China Sea

Evolving Disputes, Expanding Options

Edited by Truong T. Tran, John B. Welfield and Thuy T. Le

The South China Sea, where a number of great powers and regional players contend for influence, has emerged as one of the most potentially explosive regions in the world today. What can be done to reduce the possibility of conflict, solve the outstanding territorial problems, and harness the potential of the sea to promote regional development, environmental sustainability and security? This book, with contributions from leading authorities in China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Australia, Singapore and the United States, seeks to illuminate these questions.
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Mark B. Houston, Christopher P. Blocker and Daniel J. Flint

This study explores the meaning of relationships for business buyers and demonstrates their often under-represented humanity as social and symbolic interactionist actors when buyers are viewed as richly complex individuals (just like consumers) and not simply as representatives of an organization. Buyers’ lived experiences unfold in a context and language that differs from a consumer context, as would be expected. Yet, the consumer insights as revealed through social psychological and psychological lenses persist within the institutional structures of industrial buying. Narratives illustrate how buyers develop meaning across their constant strivings to journey with suppliers toward envisioned destinations. Relationship journeying and related themes facilitate a deeper understanding of buyers’ experiences, identity projects, and ongoing efforts to construct coherent self-narratives in their work lives.

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Andrea Miglionico

Chapter 2 focuses on the reliability of CRAs, since this has been questioned following the mis-evaluation of the default risk attaching to certain financial products—such as subprime mortgages and derivatives—that adversely affected the stability of securities markets. The CRAs have become major players in the financial markets yet their reputations have been tarnished by certain assessments issued during the 2007–09 financial crisis. This chapter provides evidence into aspects such as: (1) the motivation of CRAs to issue solicited or unsolicited ratings; (2) the discretion of CRAs to bring into play evaluation models and to control the treatment of information; and (3) the assessment of rating agencies’ responsibility. The results are interpreted with regard to the standard of rating activity, evaluating positive and negative effects of adopted regulation. This analysis offers significant implications with regard to an applicable normative framework. There is therefore a clear need to regulate the practice of the highly influential, though at times inaccurate, ratings of these agencies.

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Frank Ouwens

This chapter deals with the creation of two essential Imagineering formulations: the vision as a description of the aspirational desired future and the concept as the working principle towards that future. The vision provides Imagineers with an answer to the ‘why’ question, the concept provides the ‘how’ to achieve that vision. Vision formulation is a four-step process. First, you choose the subject. Second, you formulate the vision by defining its purpose (the why), principles (the values) and main promise. Third, the vision is checked by looking at its key characteristics. Finally, the vision is shared. The chapter then moves to the concept. The Concept Continuum articulates the differences and similarities between concepts, High Concepts (for experience design) and Creative Tension Engines (CTEs) (for experience innovation). The chapter ends by presenting an instrument called The Molecule Principle. This is very helpful for concept analysis as well as development and further formulation.

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Lauren Martin

In this chapter, the author traces the growing linkages between criminal justice and immigration enforcement systems in the United States, forced mobility between detention centers, alternative to detention, and externalization. Taken together, these practices show how detention is linked up with other spatial practices to ‘widen the net’ of detention and deportation in the United States. In addition, the institutional and infrastructural connections between criminal and immigration procedures show not only how they increasingly work together, but also how enforcement policy uses criminal procedures to produce detainable and deportable subjects. Detention is not a singular spatial practice of enclosure, but is embedded in broader networks of discipline mobility, legal practices, and criminalization that combine a range of spatial strategies to control human mobility. These different spatial practices of migration control demonstrate the ‘flexible territoriality’ of immigration policing.

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Henk van Houtum and Rodrigo Bueno Lacy

The periodically updated Frontex map of undocumented migration (called ‘risk analysis’) to the European Union (EU) has become the predominant cartographic narrative in the debate on the EU border policy. In this chapter the authors conduct a critical iconological study of this Frontex migration map to deconstruct the implicit deadly restrictive border regime recommendations it suggests. Through a dissection of three concrete iconographic features (the grid, arrows and frame) they show that this map not only builds upon a phobic and nativist discourse but it also aggravates it. Its visual arrangement evokes an invasion of unwanted African and Muslim migrants that is calling for the border closure of the EU by any means necessary. The authors argue that the Frontex map aligns with a sinister narrative of migration that is rehabilitating the nationalist-populist ideology and anti-humanist policies that the EU’s postwar ethos aimed at preventing. They get no sense at all of undocumented migrants being among the most vulnerable and materially insecure people in the world. On the contrary, it is the EU who is portrayed as a victim. Therefore, although intended to help protect the EU, this surrealist migration map is actually stoking EUroskepticism and xenophobia, thereby undermining the EU’s own foundations. Surreal. 

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Edited by Charles A. Ingene, James R. Brown and Rajiv P. Dant