This chapter lends rhetorical perspective on Frederickson’s argumentation on social equity—particularly as compiled in his book Social Equity in Public Administration—to assess the current prospects for promoting equity-related initiatives within the contentiously polarized public sphere. Rhetoric can be understood as communication intended to elicit particular modes of social interaction. Effort here to lend rhetorical perspective to Frederickson’s arguments on social equity relies principally on selected writings of three scholars—Kenneth Burke, Chaim Perelman, and Gerald Hauser—who each approach rhetorical study from different intellectual interests. This study projects Burke, Perelman, and Hauser’s thoughts on the social equity ideas that Frederickson conveys in the “first half” of his book. The balance of this chapter divides into subsections devoted to each of the book’s first five chapters.
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Richard K. Ghere
This chapter focuses on diversity/fragmentation as a desirable issue in a context of human rights integration. The chapter develops a ‘smart’ concept of human rights integration that strives for an appropriate balance between integration and fragmentation. Such human rights integration is not to be confused with a project of unification of human rights. The chapter first briefly describes the state of the art with regard to fragmentation and integration in human rights law, including scholarly debates on this issue. Next, the chapter makes the case for increased integration compared to the status quo. The main part of the chapter then identifies and analyses several arguments/rationales for limits to human rights integration. These are categorized under three headings: specialisation, contextualisation and experimentation. Finally, the chapter argues that the success of smart human rights integration is not to be assessed in terms of outcomes, but in terms of process, and that its central feature is thus a global human rights conversation. The idea is not so much that one human rights monitoring body acts in the same way or comes to the same conclusion as another body on the same issue, but rather that it is informed about what others do/have done, and reflects upon the desirability of adopting the same approach.
The chapter commences by introducing shares as property objects. It then considers the protection of shares under fundamental rights law. The position in connection with forfeiture and expropriation is analysed. A substantial section is devoted to the crucial issues of both valuation and transfer of shares. The circumstances in which shares may be acquired on a compulsory basis are detailed. The loss of share ownership on nationalisation is investigated. The position with regard to privatisation processes is noted, together with the phenomenon of the golden share. Also considered are the implications arising from the fact that multiple interests in shares may exist. Beneficial share ownership and indirect shareholding is touched upon. The issue of the creation of security over shares and the concept of financial collateral is noted. The chapter concludes with an explanation of the position with regard to the situs of shares for conflicts of law purposes.
The origin of shareholder rights is covered at the start of this chapter, with particular emphasis given to the different sources of shareholder rights (under the constitution of the company, under the common law and through legislation). The prevalence of shareholder agreements in practice is mentioned. Moving to substantive rights, the focus is on dividend expectations and voting rights. The issue of cumulative voting is noted. The circumstances under which a return of capital is permitted are explained. The new statutory right of pre-emption where new share issues occur is examined. By way of counterbalance this chapter clarifies those situations where shareholders lack rights; for example there is no automatic exit right in private companies. The enforcement of shareholder rights by pursuit of litigation is then considered.
Rosanna K. Smith, Tanja S. H. Wingenbach and Richard H. Smith
In this chapter we review the key features of envy, with special focus on the distinction between two types of envy, benign or malicious. We examine how organizations can shape the type of envy most likely to emerge, largely by influencing perceptions of deservingness and control, so that the resulting emotion has more salutary, benign features. We also emphasize the challenges associating with this shaping process, given how threatening it can be for people to admit to their envy, malicious envy especially, and therefore how envy can so often go misreported, repressed, or transmuted. Our analysis is in keeping with appraisal theories of emotion and also with the general notion that emotions can have positive or negative effects separate from their valence.
Fritz Sager, Christian Rosser, Céline Mavrot and Pascal Y. Hurni
This chapter discusses how the concept of intellectual traditions has been used in comparative Public Administration. The Continental European traditions of Germany and France are recapitulated before the discussion turns to the US tradition. It is argued that German and French Public Administration were traditionally dominated by law, whereas US scholars have always drawn on several neighboring disciplines of the social sciences and law. The chapter also discusses to what extent Public Administration in Continental Europe and the US are different in terms of the strong-state tradition of the former and the weak-state tradition of the latter.
Edited by Sybe de Vries, Henri de Waele and Marie-Pierre Granger
Edited by Sybe de Vries, Elena Ioriatti, Paolo Guarda and Elisabetta Pulice
Edited by Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Alexandra Draxler
Bruce E. Winston
This chapter presents the challenges of scoping, aligning, acquiring and implementing educational technology to meet hybrid and online doctoral leadership program needs from the program administrator’s perspective. Program administrators need to select, implement and train faculty and staff on the right technical systems that meet the needs of students, faculty and staff, and align with the university’s goals and objectives. The right technical systems are those that provide benefits for the recruitment and retention of students, efficient operations and quality improvement. To accomplish this, it is essential that program administrators follow strategic foresight principles of scanning, forecasting, trend analysis, cost–benefit analysis, training and performance appraisal – before and after implementing new technology and evaluating upgrade requirements.