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Edited by Charles A. Ingene, James R. Brown and Rajiv P. Dant

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Charles A. Ingene and James R. Brown

We present a preliminary, conceptual theory as a basis for integrating extant research over a vast scope of all channel forms: (i.e., everyway), in all marketplaces (i.e., everywhere), and all stages of economic development (i.e., everywhen). Central to our theory are four managerially-exogenous determinants of successful distribution practices (i.e., the 4Ds): (1) Market Demographics; (2) Dollars: the level and distribution of market income and wealth; (3) Geographic Density of the market area; and (4) Environmental Disruptors: governmental actions and technological changes that alter modes of production, communication and transportation. Through an historical analysis of four retail epochs in the United States – urbanization’s nascence (1790 – 1850), transcontinental migration (1850 – 1900), urbanization’s maturation (1900 – 1950), and suburbanization’s spread (1950 – 2000), we illustrate how these 4Ds have shaped an ever-changing retail structure that has generated, and continues to generate, a derived demand for channel structures everyway, everywhere, everywhen. We apply our theory to today’s Retail Apocalypse by highlighting how managerial misunderstandings of the 4Ds have contributed to extensive retail failures. In contrast, intertype competitors such as today’s e-tailers, successfully exploit the tenuous understanding that many individual retailers (and the formats they embody) have as to how the 4Ds shape successful channel strategies.

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Aharon Kellerman

We will begin this chapter with the summaries of the previous chapters, pre¬sented in sequence. We will then move to an interpretation of the Internet as a general-purpose technology, and finally, we will conclude the book with an evaluation of the general theme of the book as presenting Internet applications, followed by Internet implications, within an urban framework.

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Christoph Lütge

The conclusion recalls the major themes of the book about ethics and competition. It highlights that a major future area of application will be the ethics of digital technologies.

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Jacqueline O’Reilly, Bjørn Hvinden, Mi Ah Schoyen and Christer Hyggen

This chapter summarizes the main results presented in the volume. It discusses the range of factors influencing young people’s well-being, their risk of scarring from prolonged job insecurity, their active agency in negotiating these situations in times of austerity and, finally, their prospects for making stable transitions to adulthood. Overall, the analyses show that the potential impact of employment services and active labour market policies in moderating the adverse effects of youth unemployment vary across national contexts, labour market situations and sectors. Apart from local-level public services, social networks and family support are important factors in converting resources and latent opportunities into desired outcomes, but again cross-national variations are notable. Finally, the chapter draws together the book’s main answers to the question as to how policymakers at different territorial levels can improve policies to integrate young people into the labour market.

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Dinusha Mendis, Mark Lemley and Matthew Rimmer

In a 2006 short story, ‘Printcrime’, Cory Doctorow imagined a dystopian future of contraband 3D printers. In the work, police try to shut down a bootleg operation engaged in the 3D printing of intellectual property. In his 2009 novel Makers, Doctorow explored the rise of the maker community, and its do-it-yourself ethic.

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Stephen C. Neff

Consent in international law can potentially have three different references: to specific outcomes or events (‘outcome consent’); to rules or norms (‘rule consent’); or to a legal regime as a whole (‘regime consent’). The effect of outcome consent is to convert something that is normally unlawful into something lawful. Rule consent and regime consent are sometimes difficult to distinguish from one another. Customary international law, most notably, can be seen from either perspective. From the standpoint of rule consent, customary law would be analogous to a treaty, in which active consent is given to rules on an ad hoc basis. From the standpoint of regime consent, customary law could entail, more broadly, consent to a majority-rule system which would be analogous to a legislative, rather than a contractual, system. This dispute about the nature of customary law continues to the present time, reflected in disputes as to the nature of opinio juris – whether it is a matter of individual and independent assessment, or a collective consciousness on the part of the international community as a whole. Over time, the persistent objector principle has been devised as a (somewhat awkward) means of papering over this division of opinion. Definitive resolution of the issue is not an immediate prospect.

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Anne Peters

This chapter shows that the constitutionalization of and within international law is a fragmented process which, moreover, engages domestic constitutional law. It is not bringing about a ‘superconstitution’ over and above domestic law and all international subfields. After clarifying the key terms, notably constitutionalization, constitutionalism, and constitutional law, it explains the sectoral constitutionalization of various international organizations and the constitutionalization of the private (economic) realm. It concludes that we find (only) constitutional fragments.

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Nguyen Thi Lan Anh

Features at sea are products of nature. The tide serves as an indicator to classify features into submerged features, low tide elevations or islands. These features, however, are subject to change in either height or area or both, due to natural movements of the seabed and also to the artificial interference of human beings. Coastal states tend to conduct artificial interference in numerous ways including land reclamation, building construction, or using obsolete oil platforms to change the features at sea, making outposts for resource exploitation, maritime scientific research, security purposes and generating maritime spaces. In cases where maritime or territorial disputes exist, claimant states also tend to use artificial constructions to fortify the claims, leading to opposition from others and further complicating the situation. This chapter will analyze the legal regime of and impact on features at sea after construction has taken place, particularly in the context of a maritime or territorial dispute. It will conclude, on the basis of UNCLOS, that for the purpose of generating maritime spaces, it is the status and location of the features before, not after, the undertaking of the artificial interference that classify the features as islands or artificial islands. In the overlapping maritime zone, such construction will not create any entitlement for the constructor as the entitlement over a submerged feature or a low tide elevation will be decided upon the entitlement from land or islands in maritime delimitation. Pending final maritime delimitation, excessive construction is not constructive and only results in complications and escalation of disputes.