This chapter examines the relationship between economic reform and changes in the employment relationship in three Asian socialist economies: China and Vietnam, both in a ‘transitional’ stage; and North Korea, which has yet to open itself up to the forces of globalization. The authors explore the comparable and contrasting experiences of each country, examining the employment relations and human resource management (HRM) systems. This chapter includes data about the recent changes regarding managing the ‘new generation’ of employees and developing a new status quo in people management at both societal and firm levels.
Ngan Collins, Ying Zhu and Malcolm Warner
Edited by Chris Brewster, Wolfgang Mayrhofer and Elaine Farndale
Wolfgang Mayrhofer, Chris Brewster and Elaine Farndale
This chapter brings the Handbook to a conclusion, drawing together common themes from across all chapters, mapping the field of comparative human resource management (CHRM). The authors conclude with a reflection of the challenges that remain for comparative analyses, commenting on how the field might continue to develop in the future. Calls are made for a greater range of countries and country clusters to be covered by comparative analyses (which this Handbook has already started to address), as well as demanding greater clarity in the HRM phenomena that are being compared. By adopting more rigorous methodologies and stronger theorizing for comparisons, this will improve the ability to explain rather than just describe the differences and similarities observed across different contexts.
Paul E.M. Ligthart, Andrew Pendleton and Erik Poutsma
This chapter questions why legislation has been more forthcoming in some countries than others, given that the availability of fiscal benefits to companies and employees is an extremely important influence on the use of financial participation schemes. The authors discuss the main forms of financial participation, presenting survey evidence on the incidence of financial participation in Europe and further afield. They conclude with a reflection on the reasons for differences between countries in the character and incidence of financial participation. Country profiles of financial participation practices are presented.
B. Sebastian Reiche, Yih-teen Lee and Javier Quintanilla
This chapter focuses on national cultural explanations of variation in human resource management (HRM) practice. Presenting multiple frameworks of national culture, the authors demonstrate how managerial choices across HRM practices are shaped by cultural values and norms, and consider what this means for multinational corporations and the transfer of practices across national borders. The chapter reflects critically on the limitations of the cultural perspectives on comparative HRM, and discusses directions for future research.
Tuomo Peltonen and Eero Vaara
This chapter draws from critical theories and methodologies largely related to globalization (global labour process theory, postcolonial analysis, and transnational feminism) to demonstrate how the boundaries of comparative human resource management (HRM) research might be expanded. The chapter suggest directions for future research in this field, particularly reflecting on the critical approach to suggest avenues for positive change.
Paul Boselie, Elaine Farndale and Jaap Paauwe
This chapter defines performance management from an international perspective, and presents an overview of the most important developments over time, comparing performance management in different contexts using both case study data from large multinational corporations and national survey data. Focusing on country-level data, the chapter explores the balance between the need to standardize or localize performance management practice in different types of organization across the globe.
Ihar Sahakiants, Marion Festing, Allen D. Engle and Peter J. Dowling
This chapter addresses the topic of total rewards policies and practices from an international comparative perspective. The authors consider the potential for international rewards systems to converge across the globe, discussing whether they can be standardized in multinational corporations. The chapter provides insights into comparative data on reward packages for managers across countries, raising important questions on the future directions for research including issues such as the social acceptability of executive pay.
Gwendolyn Combs, Rana Haq, Alain Klarsfeld, Lourdes Susaeta and Esperanza Suarez
This chapter discusses the emergence of diversity management and how international comparisons can inform our understanding of and perspectives regarding the general shift from equality to diversity and associated human resource policy. The chapter takes a more focused perspective on four specific diversity strands (gender, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity/immigration, and religion) where important developments have been unfolding in recent years, sometimes amidst extreme conditions. The authors reveal important disparity in legal protections between and within the various diversity strands and cultural contexts.
Geoffrey Wood, Alexandros Psychogios, Leslie T. Szamosi and David G. Collings
This chapter develops understanding of how context influences human resource management (HRM). Exploring relevant institutional factors, the complementarities of regulatory features of an organisation’s environment are discussed. The authors highlight some of the most influential institutional approaches to understanding variations in HRM policy and practice, and draw out the implications of recent theoretical developments. The authors define the institutional context, particularly highlighting how this affects employee rights.