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Sander Faber and Marina van Geenhuizen

This chapter investigates adoption of medical technology in the form of eHealth solutions in hospitals. A model of organizational eHealth adoption is developed and empirically explored using a survey among hospitals in cities in the Netherlands and structural equation modelling (SEM). Technology adoption is seen as a process in different stages, revealing a high level of interest (about 60 per cent of hospitals) but very limited actual adoption (ranging from 6 per cent to 23 per cent). Furthermore, adoption levels tend to be higher in larger cities, and this is confirmed by significant direct influence of urban size on eHealth adoption. Other important factors tend to be organizational readiness and top management of hospitals, but these are not affected by urban size. The results leave the question open as to what makes hospitals in large cities more often adopt new technology if this is not mediated by hospital size and other organizational characteristics.

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Maria Estela Ferreira

This chapter aims to illustrate the main outcomes and the characteristics and factors of the resilience of the footwear industry in the northern region of Portugal as performed in the last 30 years. This industry acts in a cluster located in a number of towns around Porto, within a maximum distance of 50 km from this city. Such cluster is responsible for more than 90 per cent of Portuguese footwear exports. Along the analyzed period, and among other difficulties, two main shocks are identified which the industry had to face: the full membership of China in the WTO, in 2001, which carried the delocalization of most foreign footwear companies, mainly to the Far East, and the sub-prime world crisis in 2008. The industry survived and surpassed these shocks thanks to a thorough preparedness sustained by the action of entrepreneurs, together with a strong and active association and a technological center, which provided management and technical support and strengthened links between them, stimulating coordinated actions. This chapter suggests, through a non-linear approach, that Portuguese footwear exports are about to reach the level they would have attained if China hadn’t joined the WTO.

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Hans Jeekel

This chapter investigates innovation in urban passenger transport and clarifies how cities play a leading role. By focusing on liveability, intelligent systems management and new mobility, single innovations are discussed and the results summarized in a matrix. The most important ‘initiators’ are city governments, citizen groups, public transport authorities and universities, with the enterprise world somewhat lagging until recently. On the physical side, larger cities create more inventions and high density plays a role in feasibility of public transport. Universities are important, as is a historical city centre. On the social side, a well-educated population wishing to continue living in the city enhances innovation, but in some developing countries the electorate which does not own cars appears to be important. Also helpful are city governments acting on openness and trust and active political leaders. Furthermore, the early adopting cities often faced a crisis in mobility or failure of projects.

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Pieter E. Stek

This chapter presents a bibliometric study identifying clusters (cities) that are ‘champions’ in acceleration of invention in solar photovoltaics (PV), using patent analysis. The number of inventions has increased rapidly in the past decades, particularly since 2003. In this process, leading clusters change, in part, over time. Some have held their position since 2000 – Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul and Taipei in East Asia, and San Jose in the US – whereas most high-performing clusters in the US have somewhat lost their position, for example Los Angeles. Over time, there is an increased spread of inventive performance in PV technology across the world. To improve understanding of these patterns, a regression model has been estimated. Using data from 110 clusters, it appears that agglomeration factors and relational factors are equally influential, and they also tend to reinforce each other. Leadership tends to follow from a delicate balance between the size of the cluster and size/diversity of its networks.

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Cities and Sustainable Technology Transitions

Leadership, Innovation and Adoption

Edited by Marina van Geenhuizen, J. Adam Holbrook and Mozhdeh Taheri

This enlightening book elucidates the leadership challenges of various cities in emerging transitions towards higher levels of sustainability. It examines elements of three socio-technical systems, energy, transport and healthcare, while addressing technology invention, commercialization, mass-production and adoption. The book breaks new ground in the analysis of topical issues such as local ‘cradle’ conditions, incentive schemes, niche-development, living labs, impact bonds, grass-roots intermediation and adaptive policy making. It offers a broad coverage of global systems of cities, with a particular focus on Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, China, Korea, Japan, the US and Canada.
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Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 6 concludes the book by summarising the main ideas and pointing to the main issues that should be further examined in this era of digital globalisation spurred by the fourth industrial revolution. One issue is the generalisation of the specific case of comprehensive industrial policy as that implemented in the Emilia-Romagna region. Another issue regards privacy and monopoly power in the new industrial system.

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Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 5 puts together the analysis carried out in previous chapters to discuss the industrial policy implications of the fourth industrial revolution. The main idea is that manufacturing revolutions call for comprehensive industrial policy. A focus is made on industrial policy at the regional level, and it is shown, through the experience of the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy, that regions have a role to play in designing and implementing comprehensive industrial policies effective in preparing their industries and population for the industrial revolution. It is argued that in times of important change the objective of industrial policy should be resilience, namely the capacity of the economy and the society to adapt.

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Tüzin Baycan and Berna Sezen Özen

This chapter focuses on to what extend the innovation performance of EU countries has been affected by the global economic crisis and aims to investigate the relationship between the crisis and innovation performance while addressing the changes in the indicators of the Innovation Union Scoreboard Index after 2008. Focusing on these changes over the last ten years, the chapter compares and evaluates the innovation performance of EU countries and highlights which countries were more resilient in dealing with the recession.

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Freek Kuipéri, Marina van Geenhuizen and Jan Anne Annema

This chapter explores important uncertainties faced by cities in designing a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs), and it provides important ingredients for adaptive policy making. Uncertainty stems from future EV demand, new/improved technology concerning batteries, charging equipment and alternative fuel, and integration of EV batteries as a storage medium in smart energy systems. The chapter illustrates these uncertainties using scenario-analysis of demand for charging infrastructure, including the level of city quarters. Furthermore, large cities in the Netherlands tend to be slightly more ambitious with regard to EV policy than smaller cities, but there may be differences between large cities in different countries, for example Stockholm and Amsterdam. The chapter closes by presenting an adaptive policy making framework, given the uncertainty in national policies impacting on demand for EV cars, in integrating EVs in larger systems of renewable energy, and in arrangements concerning exploitation of charging stations.

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Yannis Psycharis, Dimitris Kallioras and Panagiotis Pantazis

This chapter sets out to provide empirical evidence regarding the impact of economic crisis on the employment changes in the NUTS III Greek regions, during the period 2008_2012. With the application of trade-adjusted shift-share analysis, the chapter provides additional explanatory evidence on whether openness and trade have affected the resilience of regions. Results indicate that economic crisis has impacted asymmetrically on regional employment losses, leading to a widening of regional employment disparities. Construction and manufacturing have been hit severely by the crisis. Agriculture constitutes a resilient sector, while knowledge- and technology-intensive sectors are also more resilient to crisis. The less well-off regions dependent on more traditional sectors proved to be more resilient. However, trade relations and openness are offering as stabilizers to economic downturn.