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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

The rapid international expansion of Chinese businesses has evoked mixed perceptions in host countries and among policymakers. This literature review critically analyses rigorous studies on the motivation, background, strategy, and impact of Chinese outward foreign direct investment and the emergence of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs). It is thus informative for the next wave of academic research on Chinese and emerging market MNEs in international business, political economy, economic geography and political sciences. Written by two experts in the field, this valuable study provides an important backdrop for academics who intend to understand emerging market MNEs in order to advise policymakers.
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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Thomas I. Palley, Esteban Pérez Caldentey and Matías Vernengo

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Robert Rowthorn

This paper surveys some of the main developments in macroeconomics since the anti-Keynesian counter-revolution 40 years ago. It covers both mainstream and heterodox economics. Amongst the topics discussed are: New Keynesian economics, Modern Monetary Theory, expansionary fiscal contraction, unconventional monetary policy, the Phillips curve, hysteresis, and heterodox theories of growth and distribution. The conclusion is that Keynesian economics is alive and well, and that there has been a degree of convergence between heterodox and mainstream economics.

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Barry Eichengreen

Appreciation of the Keynesian synthesis was enhanced by the events of the last decade. The global financial crisis highlighted the fragility of financial markets and the capriciousness of animal spirits. The depth of the downturn pointed to the value of not just automatic stabilizers but also discretionary fiscal policy as tools of macroeconomic management. Keynesian models and not their New Classical challengers provided the practical analytical framework for policy design. Models of the anti-Keynesian effects of fiscal consolidation received little support from actual consolidation experience. The secular-stagnation debate that followed the crisis lent legitimacy to the view that policy-makers with fiscal space were wise to use it.

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Robert W. Dimand

The supposed death of Keynesian economics has long been debated. This paper revisits the four central Keynesian propositions identified by Tobin's 1977 paper, ‘How dead is Keynes?’, to argue, in the light of the global financial crisis and the Great Recession, that Keynesian economics remains alive and relevant as useful economics for understanding the economy in a world of fundamental uncertainty, with particular reference to chapter 19 of Keynes's General Theory concerning economic instability and wage and price flexibility.