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Catharina von Koskull, Petra Berg and Johanna Gummerus

This chapter explores wrath in consumers’ collective opposition of wind power by employing rhetoric analysis revealing the explicit verbal forms of wrath. Through a rhetorical lens, the chapter analyzes a case in which resistance succeeded in putting an end to the development of a wind power park in a rural area in Finland. The chapter advances knowledge on how wrath, as a moral emotion of injustice, is expressed in public. The findings show how wrath underlies the ways in which activists try to influence their adversaries as well as to mobilize support among consumer allies. In particular, wrath is expressed through three rhetorical strategies: the morality, the evidence, and the victimization rhetorics. Wrath is visible in “ethos appeals,” but is also used as a resource in framing arguments of more rational as well as emotional characters. Overall, the findings suggest that wrath plays an important role in influencing and mobilizing consumer resistance.

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Yu Ha Cheung and Alicia S. M. Leung

Organisations have been increasingly aware of the importance of promoting environmental sustainability as one means of fulfilling a role in corporate social responsibility. Using data from 194 Hong Kong managerial and professional employees collected through two waves of online survey, we examined the impact of three proximal factors, autonomy at work, management involvement, and intrinsic motivation on workplace green behaviour (i.e., champion green behaviour, conventional green behaviour, paper use and electricity use). Our results showed that (1) employees’ intrinsic motivation and management expectations of acting green were significant predictors of workplace green behaviour; (2) autonomy at work was related only to champion green behaviour; and (3) the presence of committees or designated personnel on promoting green initiative was not related to employees’ workplace green behaviour.

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Niamh Murtagh, Birgitta Gatersleben and David Uzzell

Energy consumption in offices is particularly important amongst the environmentally impacting activities of office workers. Almost 70 per cent of this consumption is electricity, with information and computing technologies amongst the highest uses. In this chapter, we explore the question of whether individual energy feedback can influence behaviour. Research evidence on feedback in the home is reviewed but despite extensive research, the mix of approaches, small sample sizes and absence of control groups, baseline usage and inferential statistical analysis pose a challenge to conclusive findings – published studies report wide variation. In the workplace, approaches, interventions and outcomes have also been varied. A common conclusion of such studies is that interventions in the workplace can contribute to behaviour change and reduction in energy consumption and, in particular, that feedback can be an effective component of intervention. However, the chapter concludes that, despite a rapidly growing empirical base, definitive findings from the workplace remain elusive. The psychological mechanisms by which feedback may work are still unknown. Information deficit alone is insufficient as an explanation. The most promising constructs to explore further are motivation and meaning, awareness (even though we know that raised awareness in itself does not necessarily result in changed behaviour) and self-efficacy. Behaviour change requires motivation beyond the provision of information. Furthermore, the time for feedback aimed simply at energy reduction is gone. As economies shift towards lower carbon, the issue is no longer one of less energy use but shifting energy use to renewable sources alongside reducing waste. Energy at work is consumed in a collective endeavour and workers should be involved in energy-saving strategies.

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Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu

In the previous chapter, we began to address ‘alternative’ means of performance evaluation and performance management. In this chapter, we anchor those descriptions into the context of current corporate realities and begin to consider the ramifications. This takes the shape of a debate about the future of performance appraisal that has heated up to major proportions in the last few years. We follow the major arguments of those in favor of abolishing traditional rating scales altogether – or at least minimizing their use or ‘bundling’ them with other evaluation (or performance management) techniques – versus those in favor of maintaining their use, improving their efficacy, and applying the scales in a more communicative, flexible, fair, and trusting corporate environment. The discussions are garnered from the Cappelli and Tavis in the Harvard Business Review (2016).

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Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu

Having largely discussed the classical methods of performance appraisal systems (PASs) and ways in which they should be approached in order to achieve the highest levels of efficacy, we now turn to alternative approaches to performance appraisal that may replace or complement the relatively long-standing procedures or at least compensate for some of the various criticisms directed at these traditional performance appraisal formats and methods. In this chapter, we begin to introduce several of these objections in a systematic fashion and present the reader with a brief catalogue of some of the more widely employed alternatives to performance appraisal (PA) that have found their way into organizations in the current marketplace. Many of these alternative strategies (including performance management strategies) reflect the changing circumstances in the workplace and in technology and are geared to creating a more democratic climate of change than was apparent in previous years. In taking a brief look at some of these alternative methodologies we widen the scope of our overall discussion. In doing so, we distinguish globally between those approaches that focus on company goals, strategy, and bottom-line productivity that tend to match performance against set targets versus appraisal methods based on the view that, in a changing business world, employee appraisal must be immediate, ongoing and looking to the future, rather than inducing workers to be accountable for the past. We also examine approaches to performance appraisal that employ various, alternative sources of observation, including self-appraisal, peers, and subordinates, procedures that certainly help to overcome rater bias, if not intrinsically raising new challenges. Further we elaborate on the use of technology (a subject also treated in Chapter 7) – computerization, automation, media, and simulations – and assessment centers as tools that are increasingly helpful in tracking employee performance in situations where this may have been difficult in the past. And, last, we turn to performance management (PM), both as the emerging global approach to enhancing effectiveness and productivity in the workplace and by way of introduction to emerging theory and research in what has been described as firm-level performance (DeNisi and Smith, 2014).

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Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu

It stands to reason that appraisers set to observe and evaluate employees using performance appraisal techniques will improve their performance through adequate and appropriate training. The challenges, however, we recall, include overcoming rater errors, feelings of discomfort with performance appraisal (PA), and the possibility of biases entering into the evaluation process due to preconceived perceptions and personal (political) agendas. Notably, the assumption underlying the training is that there is real transferability from the training class to the real situation at the organization. Moreover, if given a clear idea of what the performance dimensions mean and what different performance levels look like, raters will be more likely to show (more) agreement in their evaluations. In this chapter then, in addition to discussing these basic assumptions, we introduce the concept of frame-of-reference training (see also Chapter 13), designed basically to ensure that raters adopt a common frame of reference regarding target performance dimensions and performance levels. Additionally, we take a look at raters’ motivations as a source of rater error. Despite cynicism regarding the efficacy of training and the relative dearth of research, Tziner (2002) among others, upholds its virtues. To this end, the chapter includes a discussion of the content and methodology of training programs, a sample of a successful training model, and a brief review of current trends in rater training programs.

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Thomas A. Norton, Stacey L. Parker, Matthew C. Davis, Sally V. Russell and Neal M. Ashkanasy

Stakeholders increasingly evaluate contemporary organisations on their environmental performance. Consequently, pro-environmental or “green” behaviour and its drivers are becoming an important aspect of workplace behaviour. In this regard, we outline how organisations can encourage their employees to be green at work. Importantly, we note that individual green behaviour contributes to system-level environmental performance. Thus, we consider an organisation as a complex adaptive system wherein employees create a workplace environment that subsequently influences their activity at work. We describe this as a virtuous cycle where employee green behaviour builds a green organisational culture, which then encourages more green behaviour. By helping employees modify the local rules guiding behaviour to include EGB, organisations might be able to enhance the effectiveness of their formal structures and develop a positive culture towards environmental sustainability. To this end, we provide recommendations for practitioners in this area.

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Neil Bania and Laura Leete

Considerable theoretical and empirical progress has advanced our understanding of the role and value of the volunteer, resulting in improved estimates of volunteer labor valuation. Yet this task still involves conceptual and methodological challenges. Conceptually, costs and benefits accrue to the organization, the volunteer, and to society. Depending on one’s purpose, the focus may be on one or more of these concepts. To date, researchers have pursued three approaches: opportunity cost, replacement cost, and organizational value. Methodological challenges result from a lack of consensus on how to define volunteerism. There is still no comprehensive assessment of methodological differences for counting volunteer hours and researchers have not clearly documented which approaches yield the most accurate estimates. More generally, on-going analysis of volunteer hours in national datasets is largely missing and research that directly measures either the replacement value or the organizational value of volunteers is in its infancy.

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Elias G. Carayannis and Mike Provance

We have started formulating and simulating the lifecycle of knowledge-driven (that would include technology-driven) ventures that can be viewed as the exercise of real options under regimes of risk and uncertainty that is modeled in the form of “happy accidents” namely, strategic knowledge serendipity, arbitrage and acquisition events that punctuate the process of the venture’s lifecycle. In practical terms, we find that the timing, selection and sequencing of key decisions pertaining to new venture formation and evolution are contingent in a non-linear manner to the breadth and depth as well as the quality and density of the network structure of the business and technology ecosystem within which a venture is situated. We find that up to a certain point of cultivating and nurturing the new firm’s “socio-economic” network, the costs outweigh the benefits but with an abrupt about-face once a critical mass in the scale, scope and quality of this “socio-economic” network or business and technology ecosystem is attained when the benefits start outweighing and exponentially exceeding the costs.

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Thomas Lans, Yvette Baggen and Baggen Ploum

To move forward as researchers interested in contributing to the (European) political debate on entrepreneurial competence, on the one hand, and conducting sound scientific research, on the other, we argue that it is time for researchers to move to the next level of entrepreneurial competence research. Therefore, this chapter discusses two important aspects associated with the concept of entrepreneurial competence, namely the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ question. Both questions seem to be common sense, but interestingly the fundaments behind these two questions receive limited attention in the entrepreneurship education (EE) literature. Concerning the ‘what’ question, to prevent the generation of endless lists of competencies we propose to cluster entrepreneurial competencies in four competence domains, including a cognition-orientated, function-oriented, social-oriented and meta-oriented domain. To illustrate the power of using this framework we discuss specific research that has been done on opportunity identification competence, social competence and moral competence. Concerning the ‘how’ question we invite EE research to embrace modern educational design principles that will help to develop targeted theoretical frameworks that direct empirical intervention studies in EE. Examples of pedagogical approaches discussed in this chapter that incorporate modern education principles come from problem-based learning, project-based learning, student-centred learning environments and boundary crossing theory.