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Amalya Oliver-Lumerman and Gili S. Drori

The variety of historical and locational contexts, coupled with the various degrees of intentionality and multiplicity of social objectives, resulted in a rich depository of exemplary tales of ACL. The chapter offers an analytic survey of ACL strategies, alongside examples of the implementation of such strategies by universities in various countries. The chapter also uses Einstein as an icon figure for ACL.

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Amalya Oliver-Lumerman and Gili S. Drori

What are ACL projects? What are their goals? What social groups directed to? And what is their area of activity? In this chapter, we offer a description of 10 ACL projects that members of the Hoffman Leadership and Responsibility Program established over the years. With these illustrations, the reader can have a better understanding of options for ACL projects.

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Colin Bradley

Undertaking “research” when faced with an organisational problem would seem to be delaying or avoiding the problem, unless the problem involved people, and the “research” chosen was action research. “Action research” is both a type of research and the title of a family of similar methodologies. Its primary outcome is change, but it also produces new knowledge. The methodologies in the family have many characteristics in common. These characteristics include cycles of planning, action, observation and review, undertaken by those directly involved in the change. Action researchers have successfully undertaken action research projects in almost all industries in a very broad range of circumstances. These circumstances can range from a small community group or organisation to relationships across international borders. The successes arise from action research projects because most change involves people, and people are more willing to accept change if they are involved in the change. Action research engages people in collaboration and communication about the process of change. The collaboration extends to the inclusion of the researcher, who becomes another participant, rather than an independent observer. The collaboration and communication includes all participants collecting and analysing data, including their own and others’ observations. This approach increases the rigour of the research. Used in appropriate change situations, action research is a highly effective method to achieve the broad outcomes sought by organisations, governments and communities. It appears to be more effective than most other change methodologies in social settings. All research methodologies have their own limitations. Action research can be time consuming and resource intensive, as it involves communicating with many people. Gaining all participants active involvement is important to successful outcomes, and reduced participation can slow the project as the researchers try to gain full participation. The outcomes of an action research project are about the specific phenomenon under review. Transferability and generalisation of outcomes requires consideration of, and support from, similar action research projects. Fortunately, a range of journals and conferences around the world contain a growing number of papers on action research projects that new researchers can use to reference against their research. Action research creates interest and excitement in the people who lead the projects. Their enthusiasm when talking about their projects is obvious. They are often happy to help and guide new participants in the action research community. Readers are encouraged to source the journals, conferences, networks and fellow action researchers to increase their knowledge of the use, benefits and types of action research.

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Mary Casey and David Coghlan

Action research is an approach to research that integrates theory and practice through research in action. It is essentially emancipatory and collaborative and it engages those directly affected by the issues at hand as co-researchers. It generates actionable knowledge, that is knowledge that is useful for practitioners and robust for scholars. It is conducted in the present tense whereby it is enacted through cycles of planning, action and reflection. Action research is understood to be a family of approaches and is expressed through modalities, such as action learning, appreciative inquiry, cooperative developmental action inquiry, learning history and participatory action research to name some of the more common ones. It is practised in many settings – business, community development, education, health care, nursing, midwifery and each of these typically has its own application and literature.

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Amalya Oliver-Lumerman and Gili S. Drori

Looking forward, we consider the possible challenges to the implementation of ACL, also by considering the critique levied against CSR. To this aim, we outline a tiered ACL model that sets actionable commitment and actionable leadership. And, drawing on long-standing concerns about the authenticity, autonomy and managerialism in academia, we reflect on how universities are evolving and how they should evolve in order to engage more deeply with society.

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Megan Jarman-Clark and Carolina Cambre

Critical Discourse Analysis (henceforth CDA) is a qualitative approach that analyzes the context and content of spoken and written discourses, and has been called an epistemology, methodology and method. If we understand the concept of discourse to include the performative operations and uses of language beyond the words themselves, then analyzing discourses also requires asking why one discourse takes precedence over another (Olssen et al., 2004). Generally, educational policy scholars using CDA take critical theory perspectives alongside CDA to analyze “everything from mission statements and textbooks produced in response to a policy mandate, to transcripts of meetings and evidence considered during policymaking processes” (Lester et al., 2016). In this chapter, we conduct a critical review of the literature over a 10-year span in Canadian education policy research as a heuristic to examine how the reported use of CDA is represented, since CDA is becoming an increasingly important and powerful analytical approach for scholars in education and beyond. Significantly, researchers using CDA tend to reject the notion of research as value-free and use their research to address social justice issues through an activist research approach (Rogers et al., 2016). Our aim is to examine a salient cross-section of examples of articles claiming to take a CDA approach, during a timespan where it was gaining traction in the literature, assess their usage of CDA and make suggestions for further dialogue around operationalizing CDA. The criteria for inclusion/exclusion for this critical review considered year of publication (2008-2018), Canadian specific education policy and the use of CDA in titles or keywords. These constraints were put in place to limit breadth in order to provide a in depth critical review that could do a deep dive into operative definitions of CDA and how it being used in the specific area of policy analysis.

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From Ivory Tower to Academic Commitment and Leadership

The Changing Public Mission of Universities

Amalya Oliver-Lumerman and Gili S. Drori

How is the public mission of universities to change in the face of today’s global challenges? How is the 21st Century university to balance its long-standing traditions and its commitment to teaching, research and commercialization with rapidly changing social needs and conditions worldwide? And how does the newly defined public role of the university reflect on changes to non-profit organizations in general? Amalya Oliver-Lumerman and Gili S. Drori offer a new model of academic commitment and leadership in response to questions about the new public role of the university.
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Edited by Joanna Crossman and Sarbari Bordia

This comprehensive Handbook explores both traditional and contemporary interpretations of qualitative research in the workplace, examining a variety of foundational and innovative qualitative methodological approaches.
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Amalya Oliver-Lumerman and Gili S. Drori

The term, "communities of practice" is an important infrastructure for establishing strong ACL. However, it is possible to apply different practices and processes in order to establish strong and effective such communities within universities. The chapter offers a detailed description of the main elements that facilitate community integration and cohesion and how these were implemented at the "Hoffman Leadership and Responsibility Program" at the Hebrew University.

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Leonor Rodriguez

This chapter provides a critical understanding of secondary qualitative data analysis. It begins my providing a definition of this data analysis approach and its advantages to respond to the current global availability of readily datasets. The chapter recognises the challenges of limitations of secondary data analysis in terms of data quality, ethics and data protection; however, alternatives and solutions are provided of how to best respond to these challenges to achieve the maximum advantage of this method applicable to a variety of disciplines and research topics. Supported by a case study, the chapter provides a detailed description of the research process carried out using qualitative secondary data analysis from design to dissemination. Overall this is a flexible method with huge potential to advance knowledge in a variety of fields with other advantages such as cost-effectiveness and a capacity rapid knowledge to inform policy and practice. It is hoped that this chapter will encourage, support and advance secondary data analysis as a method and provides an opportunity to advance and learn from its application in practice.