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James Karlsen and Miren Larrea

This chapter advances the discussions on leadership by proposing that action research contributes to, not only the analysis of territorial leadership, but also its construction. Action research requires the active participation of researchers and territorial actors in co-generative transformation processes that give shared leadership as a result. This approach invites researchers to explore their own agency in the construction of territorial leadership, which is an evolution in their research positionality from observer to active participant. Researchers cannot avoid influencing the social processes, such as the construction of regional innovation systems through territorial leadership. Action research provides frameworks and methods for them to be aware of and to actively address this influence. In the chapter, examples are presented and discussed.

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Lukas Gilliard, Nadia Alaily-Mattar and Alain Thierstein

This contribution presents the pedagogy of the first-year design studio of the interdisciplinary master programme in Urbanism, Landscape and City at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The programme is designed for early career professionals with a first academic degree in an urban development related discipline. The programme’s pedagogy is based on the assumption that the competencies for steering urban development are distributed among various disciplines, thus calling for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches. So far, tendencies for specialisation and academic compartmentalization challenge the adoption of such approaches, which would require new tools and methods to engage design-based disciplines with the social and economic sciences and the humanities. The need to develop new pedagogies in this area is urgent. The pedagogy presented in this chapter combines trend analyses with methods of data analysis and design that are spatially oriented. This combination allows a discursive process-oriented planning approach that enables students from various disciplines to work collaboratively. This is a particularly pressing task in the context of contemporary conditions of urbanism, which undermine the effectiveness of the established instruments of urban planning thus threatening spatial planning with political insignificance.

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Camila D’Ottaviano and João Farias Rovati

Exploring recent actions at the universities of Porto Alegre and São Paulo, this chapter analyses current advances and difficulties of community outreach in Brazil. The objective is to sustain the debate about the paths of community outreach and, especially, about its potential in the field of urban planning and urban studies. It is argued that, by questioning consolidated routines and proposing new pedagogical approaches, outreach actions reveal alternative paths to planning practice and experiment with innovative tools for urban planners’ training as a profession capable of acting from a sensible understanding of reality. It also proposes the defence of the public dimension of community outreach, as an opportunity to "think and act together", particularly at a time of crisis for Brazilian public universities.

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Elsa Vivant

This chapter presents a pedagogical experiment with master’s students in urban planning. The originality of this workshop was that students worked with patients with mental illness in order to plan and relocate a mental health institution. This was sponsored by a Parisian psychiatric hospital that wanted to reorganize its activities in the city, while contributing to the social inclusion and empowerment of its patients. After presenting the different stages of the workshop, this chapter focuses on an analysis of the conditions and difficulties of this innovative and inclusive approach. The experiment raised several issues related to inclusion and dignity through planning practices and the education of future town planners. This afforded new understandings and a deeper appreciation of the challenges of participatory planning, by giving a voice to those who never speak. The whole process was enriching for all concerned, in terms of learning from others and from themselves. It also enhanced the learning opportunities for students, since they were compelled to reflect deeply on the complexities of standardised planning principles.

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Petter Dybedal, Jan Vidar Haukeland and Kathrin Stemmer

This chapter provides a framework for understanding and analysing current and potential demand for nature-based tourism (NBT) products. Data from a national summer season survey enlightens affinity towards and participation in NBT activities for different segments among foreign visitors to Norway. Landscape experiences, sightseeing and nature photographing are dominant activities, but they are often linked to physical activities, of which easy walks and hiking in mountain and forest areas are the most common. The chapter analyses demand segments across gender, age, nationality, travel party and duration of stay for the most popular activities; photographing, easy walks, hiking, fishing, kayaking/canoeing, mountain biking and birdwatching. The chapter also investigates level of commitment and skills among participants in these activities.

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Stian Stensland, Magnar Forbord, Knut Fossgard and Kristin Løseth

This chapter examines characteristics of nature-based tourism firms based on data from a national survey in Norway. Through cluster analysis we identify three types of firms: 1) Guided activity firms; 2) Hospitality facilitators that combine accommodation with angling and hunting license and self-guided activities; and 3) Activity package firms that offer comprehensive packages with combinations of activities, accommodation, food, and transport. Although there are many different motivations to be in the business (sustainability, lifestyle, economy, etc.) within and across the firm types, profit and growth are not among the main motivations. Typically, many of the firms are small (1-3 employees) and seasonal, located in rural areas with several sources of income. Few firms plan to increase the number of staff. From a tourism development perspective, governmental support programs and industry advisors should be aware of these specificities of nature-based tourism firms and the diversity in products they offer.

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Gavan Rafferty, Grazia Concilio, José Carlos Mota, Fernando Nogueira, Emma Puerari and Louise O’Kane

Designing pedagogical methods to teach community engagement and participation to spatial planning students at university remains challenging, particularly given the diverse range of stakeholders and perspectives that now exist in contemporary society. Framing the development of innovative pedagogies as one aspect of the broader ‘third mission’ of universities, i.e., enhancing civic engagement and social impact, the chapter draws together reflections from the Community Participation in Planning (CPiP) project on ways to co-design a pedagogy that nurtures cross-sectoral and transnational learning for co-learning inclusive participation practices in planning. The contribution explores how ‘learning in action’, through live real-world projects, can enrich student learning and move beyond didactic teaching styles to offer an innovative pedagogy that nurtures knowledge co-production. The conclusions offer insights on: a) the implementation challenges to teaching participation in planning courses, b) differences in interpretations of participation by comparing multiple cultural contexts, and c) how the spatial planning discipline can combine teaching and research with civic engagement/social impact.

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Markku Sotarauta

This chapter presents a theoretical framework for understanding place leadership and combinatorial power. Place leadership is defined as the mobilization and coordination of diverse groups of actors to achieve a collective effort aimed at enhancing the development of a specific place. Place leadership is a form of agency that works across institutional, organizational, geographical and/or sectoral boundaries to boost local/regional development. The framework presented in this chapter highlights the need to understand power from a combinatorial perspective when studying place leadership. First, the negative and positives sides of power are discussed to provide a conceptual context for the chapter. Second, the connections between power and mobilization are explored, and third, the institutional, network and cognitive approaches to power are introduced. Consequently, fourth, it is argued that we need to understand how different forms of power are combined instead of focusing solely on the cumulative nature of institutional power, and for that purpose, a schematized combinatorial power typology is presented.

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Kristin Løseth and Peter Varley

Nature based tourism is growing worldwide, but its specific expression varies according to geography, culture and socio-political history. The jet-boats of New Zealand or the heli-skiing of the Canadian Rockies cannot, for better or for worse, just be copied and pasted into any national setting. Commercial mountain guiding is a narrow niche of the adventure tourism industry of Norway. Through a qualitative approach, this chapter will look at how the niche is shaped by changes in outdoor cultures, by the ups- and downs of the national economy, and by the juridical framework regulating the industry. While commercial mountain guiding is taking place in mountain regions worldwide, it is argued that the role of national and regional conditions in product and practice development should not be underestimated.

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Jan Vidar Haukeland and Peter Fredman

This book contributes to interdisciplinary research-based knowledge about nature-based tourism. The focus is on linkages between place-based resources and value-added experiences, providing a multifaceted “mosaic of knowledge” towards better understanding of the rapidly evolving nature-based tourism sector. The research was undertaken before the COVID-19 pandemic had its devastating effects on tourism in 2020. We argue that small-scale nature-based tourism entrepreneurs in rural regions are better positioned to survive such crisis than operators at typical mass-tourism destinations. Future avenues of research are briefly outlined, including the meaning and benefits ascribed to nature-based tourism, issues of sustainability and resilience, and pathways to new products in this highly dynamic sector.