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Edited by Padraic Kenna, Sergio Nasarre-Aznar, Peter Sparkes and Christoph U. Schmid

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Edited by Padraic Kenna, Sergio Nasarre-Aznar, Peter Sparkes and Christoph U. Schmid

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Padraic Kenna

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Loss of Homes and Evictions across Europe

A Comparative Legal and Policy Examination

Edited by Padraic Kenna, Sergio Nasarre-Aznar, Peter Sparkes and Christoph U. Schmid

The loss of a home can lead to major violations of a person’s dignity and human rights. Yet, evictions take place everyday in all countries across Europe. This book provides a comparative assessment of human rights, administrative, procedural and public policy norms, in the context of eviction, across a number of European jurisdictions. Through this comparison the book exposes the emergence of consistent, Europe-wide standards and norms.
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Ugo Mattei and Alessandra Quarta

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Ugo Mattei and Alessandra Quarta

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Ugo Mattei and Alessandra Quarta

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The Turning Point in Private Law

Ecology, Technology and the Commons

Ugo Mattei and Alessandra Quarta

Can private law assume an ecological meaning? Can property and contract defend nature? Is tort law an adequate tool for paying environmental damages to future generations? The Turning Point in Private Law explores potential resolutions to these questions, analyzing the evolution of legal thinking in relation to the topics of legal personality, property, contract and tort. The authors pose a suggested list of basic principles for a new, ecological legal system in which private law represents a valid ally for defending our future.
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Magdalena Habdas and Grzegorz Panek

In Poland, after privatization and the ensuing lack of public housing, an unbalanced housing policy induced governments to place the social and financial burden of housing low income groups on landlords up to the 1990s. However, the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights has stopped this approach by finding a violation of the owner’s freedom of property. This case law has also had repercussions in neighbouring countries where landlords were exposed to similar problems. It impressively shows the supranational constitutional dimension of commutative justice limiting national legislators. As a reaction, tenancy legislation was deregulated in Poland and its neighbouring countries; and the long-standing fragmentation of the market into privileged and non-privileged rentals as well as the communist legacy of the so-called tenant quasi-ownership were abolished. The new Polish law sets forth detailed provisions on rent setting and rent increase; in particular, the rent must not, as a rule, exceed 3 per cent of the dwelling’s reconstruction value. Shorter time-limited tenancies have been introduced so as to promote the offer of additional dwellings. Despite these reforms, the housing situation in Poland is tense due to a lack of rental dwellings in particular for low income groups.

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Elena Bargelli and Ranieri Bianchi

This chapter explores the black market in the private rental sector in Southern European legal systems, with a particular focus on Italy. The black market is an often neglected real world phenomenon constituted by unofficial, informal contracts which violate binding legal rules, in particular public law rules on tax, registration and inhabitability requirements, and are therefore mostly kept secret by the parties. Such secretive and illegal arrangements, which render resort to the courts more difficult, tend to disadvantage the weaker party, typically the tenant. Against this background, the Italian legislator has introduced sanction mechanisms under private law aimed at giving tenants incentives to report black market practices without endangering their own position. However, the mandatory adaptation of the contract to the advantage of the tenant has been declared void by the Italian Constitutional Court. Yet, other sanctions continue to exist: landlords may only enforce written and registered contracts whereas tenants may ask for registration even at a later stage to invoke their rights. Yet these measures presuppose an effective, swift and affordable judicial system trusted by the tenant, which is not fully present in Southern Europe in general and in Italy in particular.