This chapter explores wrath in consumers’ collective opposition of wind power by employing rhetoric analysis revealing the explicit verbal forms of wrath. Through a rhetorical lens, the chapter analyzes a case in which resistance succeeded in putting an end to the development of a wind power park in a rural area in Finland. The chapter advances knowledge on how wrath, as a moral emotion of injustice, is expressed in public. The findings show how wrath underlies the ways in which activists try to influence their adversaries as well as to mobilize support among consumer allies. In particular, wrath is expressed through three rhetorical strategies: the morality, the evidence, and the victimization rhetorics. Wrath is visible in “ethos appeals,” but is also used as a resource in framing arguments of more rational as well as emotional characters. Overall, the findings suggest that wrath plays an important role in influencing and mobilizing consumer resistance.
Catharina von Koskull, Petra Berg and Johanna Gummerus
Yu Ha Cheung and Alicia S. M. Leung
Organisations have been increasingly aware of the importance of promoting environmental sustainability as one means of fulfilling a role in corporate social responsibility. Using data from 194 Hong Kong managerial and professional employees collected through two waves of online survey, we examined the impact of three proximal factors, autonomy at work, management involvement, and intrinsic motivation on workplace green behaviour (i.e., champion green behaviour, conventional green behaviour, paper use and electricity use). Our results showed that (1) employees’ intrinsic motivation and management expectations of acting green were significant predictors of workplace green behaviour; (2) autonomy at work was related only to champion green behaviour; and (3) the presence of committees or designated personnel on promoting green initiative was not related to employees’ workplace green behaviour.
Niamh Murtagh, Birgitta Gatersleben and David Uzzell
Energy consumption in offices is particularly important amongst the environmentally impacting activities of office workers. Almost 70 per cent of this consumption is electricity, with information and computing technologies amongst the highest uses. In this chapter, we explore the question of whether individual energy feedback can influence behaviour. Research evidence on feedback in the home is reviewed but despite extensive research, the mix of approaches, small sample sizes and absence of control groups, baseline usage and inferential statistical analysis pose a challenge to conclusive findings – published studies report wide variation. In the workplace, approaches, interventions and outcomes have also been varied. A common conclusion of such studies is that interventions in the workplace can contribute to behaviour change and reduction in energy consumption and, in particular, that feedback can be an effective component of intervention. However, the chapter concludes that, despite a rapidly growing empirical base, definitive findings from the workplace remain elusive. The psychological mechanisms by which feedback may work are still unknown. Information deficit alone is insufficient as an explanation. The most promising constructs to explore further are motivation and meaning, awareness (even though we know that raised awareness in itself does not necessarily result in changed behaviour) and self-efficacy. Behaviour change requires motivation beyond the provision of information. Furthermore, the time for feedback aimed simply at energy reduction is gone. As economies shift towards lower carbon, the issue is no longer one of less energy use but shifting energy use to renewable sources alongside reducing waste. Energy at work is consumed in a collective endeavour and workers should be involved in energy-saving strategies.
Thomas A. Norton, Stacey L. Parker, Matthew C. Davis, Sally V. Russell and Neal M. Ashkanasy
Stakeholders increasingly evaluate contemporary organisations on their environmental performance. Consequently, pro-environmental or “green” behaviour and its drivers are becoming an important aspect of workplace behaviour. In this regard, we outline how organisations can encourage their employees to be green at work. Importantly, we note that individual green behaviour contributes to system-level environmental performance. Thus, we consider an organisation as a complex adaptive system wherein employees create a workplace environment that subsequently influences their activity at work. We describe this as a virtuous cycle where employee green behaviour builds a green organisational culture, which then encourages more green behaviour. By helping employees modify the local rules guiding behaviour to include EGB, organisations might be able to enhance the effectiveness of their formal structures and develop a positive culture towards environmental sustainability. To this end, we provide recommendations for practitioners in this area.
Caroline Verfuerth and Diana Gregory-Smith
This chapter discusses the concept of ‘spillover’ and its various conceptualisations in pro-environmental behaviour research. It provides an overview of the current spillover literature and its relevance to environmentally friendly behaviours and the workplace. Different methodological approaches (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) used in past studies that investigated spillover effects, both between behaviours and between settings, are critically discussed. The chapter also considers the implications of both positive and negative spillover effects for social marketing campaigns and behaviour change programmes that promote pro-environmental behaviours in organisations.
Amelie V. Güntner, Florian E. Klonek and Simone Kauffeld
This chapter addresses the challenge of motivating employees regarding energy conservation, by providing a socio-motivational and micro-interactional perspective on energy conservations in the workplace. Building on change management research, we highlight the socio-relational and motivational dynamics between energy managers and employees in conversations about energy-related behaviour change. Further, we introduce Motivational Interviewing (MI) as a socio-relational approach that offers potential to help energy managers in discussing energy savings with employees. In this regard, we outline how introductory training in MI for energy managers can be designed, can provide detailed information on procedures, and present methodological approaches to evaluate these types of interventions. Finally, we provide a detailed analysis of conversational dynamics between an energy manager and an employee who we evaluated as part of a training evaluation study.
Ari Huuhka and Harri Luomala
This chapter unifies the fragmented streams of research on sloth. Based on the triadic reciprocal interaction approach to consumer behaviour, the chapter offers a novel reciprocal interaction conceptualization of sloth in consumption. The model acknowledges the behavioural (consumer inaction), personal (sadness and boredom) and environmental elements (sociocultural understanding) that create the consumer’s experience of sloth in reciprocal interaction. It is argued that when sloth emerges as a sin, it concerns an individual’s awareness of negative behavioural consequences. The sin of sloth is regarded as a social construction because the slothful behaviour’s consequences are evaluated in social interaction in relation with the prevailing values and behavioural norms within the given sociocultural context. Based on the value–action–consequence premises of Schwartz’s value theory, the chapter illustrates how the sin of sloth might appear in the convenience food consumption context.
Edited by Henna Syrjälä and Hanna Leipämaa-Leskinen
Peter Bradley, Shane Fudge and Matthew Leach
This study presents results from a smart metering intervention that provided detailed individual desk-based energy feedback to help individuals reduce energy in an organisation. Although the intervention was based on the study of individuals, this chapter explores how the technology was socialised, and how it was set to explore changes in normative influence (descriptive and injunctive norms) around specific energy services, before and after the intervention. Results from the study identify that social norms around certain energy services changed as a result of the intervention, and the level of descriptive norms was found to have a direct effect on energy efficiency of participants. Interviews were carried out during the study and provided insight on social construction and social comparison processes occurring during the intervention, as these are key to understanding the emergence and diffusion of social norms. Strong interaction between technologies/technology policy and social context was found.