This chapter offers an overview of regional geographies of corruption around the world. It examines global patterns using Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index, and proceeds to summarize corruption in Europe, the Middle East/North Africa, Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, using maps of each. The point of this survey is to demonstrate that there is no “one-size-fits-all” model of corruption; rather, it must be understood within widely varying economic, political, and cultural contexts.
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Grappling with Democracy
The relationship between democracy and the economy is of long-standing interest for economic, political and social theory. Discussions about democracy and the economy often focus on the part that government should play in defining the terms of this relationship. Less frequently addressed in a direct way are questions concerning the role of democracy in the economy, and in its basic building blocks, corporations. This chapter considers what the corporation looks like when it comes to be organized along democratic lines. It begins by comparing the democratic conception of the firm against other widely influential theories and showing how this view is operationalized within worker cooperatives. It then considers why worker co-ops are so rare and goes on to discuss the kinds of ‘ecosystems’ that tend to make them less rare. From here, the chapter turns to a discussion of the impact of worker co-ops and some key challenges facing the worker co-op model. It concludes by situating worker co-ops within a broader universe of ‘alternative’ forms of business organization.
Domestic and family violence (DVF) has become a global public health concern since its initial shift from the private into the public sphere. While policy and law reforms have incorporated a greater understanding of the complex nature of domestic and family violence, government responses mandating victim and child protection continue to operate in silos in many jurisdictions. Domestic and family violence-related child protection interventions have been marked by gendered expectations around parenting and victim-blaming attitudes towards mothers. Women affected by domestic and family violence have been accused of a ‘failure to protect’ their dependent children if they were seen as unable or unwilling to separate from the abusive partner. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on the responsibility of fathers in avoiding child exposure to DFV. This chapter outlines the current landscape of gendered child protection policies and interventions relevant to DVF, together with research evidence supporting the need for holistic interventions and differentiated responses that place greater emphasis on involving abusive fathers in child protection service response.
Megan Blaxland, Xiaoyuan Shang and Karen R. Fisher
The chapter addresses the gendered impact of Chinese social policies on the well-being of disadvantaged groups by examining empirical data in key policy areas of income support, disability services and aged care. The three case study social groups examined in the analysis are widowed mothers in rural areas, young women with disabilities in state care transitioning to adulthood and aged care for older women in rural China. Applying an ethic of care framework, we find that there are many women who do not have the supports they need to give and receive care. Instead, they find themselves in a space between customary supports and new forms of social assistance for care. Addressing this gender inequality would require policy change to support the redistribution of care to these disadvantaged girls and women in ways that would recognize their dignity and human rights.
Based on years of archival research, primary interviews and observations across myriad sites including schools, homes and courts in Puebla, Mexico, New York City, and south Texas, this chapter places children’s migrations into a socio-historical context so that this phenomenon can be better understood as a byproduct of seemingly endless US (and foreign) interventions. Largely subsumed into accounts of adult and family migration where minors were assumed to simply be ‘luggage’ or following their parents, the trickles of independent teenage migrants that came before today’s waves have mostly gone ignored. Entitled to economic and physical security with and away from their families, these youths have actively responded to the ebbs and flows of interventions in their countries by immigrating for nearly a century; today’s Mexican and Central American teenage migrants are simply making the old new again.
In this chapter I will provide an overview of the global data on child migration, and explore how and why children travel in the regions covered by the various contributors to this book. At the outset, I acknowledge that data on international migration is not particularly precise or reliable. Statistics in many regions are scarce or non-existent, so that numbers are generally based on estimates. Specific data on child migration is even more difficult to come by. According to the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR) in its Global Trends Report 2015, only a few countries supply refugee data disaggregated by age. In 2015, data disaggregated by age was available for 21.2 million people only, which represented 33 per cent of the estimated global number of refugees. In this chapter I draw heavily on the ground-breaking report prepared by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in 2015, Uprooted: The Growing Crisis for Refugee and Migrant Children, which represents a laudatory effort to compile all of the data then available on the topic of children on the move around the world.
This chapter discusses the future Chinese governance pattern through the use of such questions as: Will the governance pattern under the petty peasant economy still exist in the future? What is the future path of the Chinese governance pattern? Is China creating a new governance model? What are the challenges to the Chinese governance pattern in the era of globalization? What is the direction of this research in the future?
Cathy Macharis, Klaas De Brucker and Koen Van Raemdonck
The aim of this chapter is to develop a decision tree for the ex ante evaluation of transport projects to guide decision makers in choosing the most appropriate evaluation method(s). First, the authors identify the differences between the main objectives and characteristics of a number of evaluation methods, Operational Research (OR) as well as non-OR methods, such as Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA), Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA) and other methods. We provide the (OR) Community with insights on how MCA relates to non-OR methodologies, and attempt to structure the complexity of the ex ante evaluation process of transport (and other) projects.
Michael A Helfand
This chapter explores how US courts address legal disputes that implicate contested religious or theological questions. While American law’s ostensibly straightforward answer to this question is simply that the Constitution prohibits courts from adjudicating religious questions, the reality is far more complicated. The legal consequences of applying this religious question doctrine vary depending on the context and may therefore encourage different context-sensitive strategies and outcomes. Thus, when judges dismiss private law cases that implicate theological questions, they often leave aggrieved parties without a remedy for legal wrongs; when judges dismiss public law cases that include theological questions, they often leave some sphere of human conduct beyond the law’s regulatory reach. Contrary to the prevailing doctrine, the different jurisprudential considerations raised by these disparate practical consequences justify affording courts more flexibility in the private law context to resolve disputes that implicate theological claims.