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Global Environmental Governance and Small States

Architectures and Agency in the Caribbean

Michelle Scobie

Global Environmental Governance gives the perspectives of small states on some of the most important issues of the anthropocene, from trade, climate change and energy security to tourism, marine governance, and heritage. Providing an in depth analysis of global environmental governance and its impact on Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS) Michelle Scobie explores which dynamics and contexts influence current policy and future environmental outcomes for one of the most biodiverse regions of the planet.
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Catherine Vertesi

Although the focus in the past decade has been on increasing the numbers of students leaving their home university for an international study experience, recent research has shown that merely going abroad is not enough to transform participants into global citizens. It is increasingly clear that in planning exchanges and other study abroad opportunities for students, the teaching, the orientation activities and the mentoring surrounding the travel are key to maximizing the impact of the foreign immersion as well as the post-return contributions to departmental internationalization. This chapter will focus on the practical aspects of developing a portfolio of offerings, the selection of partners and participants, the cultural orientation, itinerary development, values examination and reflection, and reintegration. Initially the focus will be on affecting the transformation of the individual student. Later in the chapter we will revisit the need for returning students to assist in meeting the internationalization needs of the department. Educators can play a role to assist students to deconstruct aspects of their international experience to better inform the experiences they will engage in for themselves and to contribute to the internationalization of those who stay at home.

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J.E. (Joe) Barth

The use of written examinations in student evaluation has decreased over time, and most instructors have chosen other means of evaluation despite problems with group work, plagiarism and academic misconduct. Examinations have been shown to be an effective evaluative tool and motivate students to do well. The controlled environment provided by the examination process makes cheating more difficult and enhances the integrity of the evaluation system. Gaps between examination questions, course materials and classroom teaching undermine learning and reduce examination validity. Instructors can do many things to reduce examinations stress, increase the validity of examinations and improve students’ satisfaction with the examination itself. Two-stage, collaborative examinations show promising results for both student evaluation and enhanced learning. The positive attributes of examinations as an evaluation tool are further supported by the prevalence of academic misconduct, plagiarism and cheating found in other means of evaluation.

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Émilie Crossley

Criticality is a concept that has gained increasing traction among tourism scholars seeking to articulate socially progressive, politically engaged and methodologically innovative perspectives. However, tourism education has remained largely insulated from these radical and transformative currents within the academy. Predominantly, university programs still focus on producing graduates with pragmatic management competencies rather than the ability to engage critically with the social and environmental challenges faced by tourism practitioners. Building on emergent debates within the field of tourism education, this chapter explores the plural and contested meanings of criticality as a theoretical orientation and pedagogical practice. Three pedagogical moments are identified along a continuum of criticality, which moves progressively towards uncertainty and reflexivity, and the potential of each for enriching teaching and learning in tourism is evaluated.

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Stephen Wearing, Michael A. Tarrant, Stephen Schweinsberg and Kevin Lyons

This chapter explores the potential of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) in promoting cultural and environmental awareness through sustainable tourism education. The chapter considers how an experiential framework built on an ecological paradigm provides a platform for WIL that not only exposes learners to concrete experiences, but also has the capacity to introduce them to authentic practices through interaction with industry and community leaders and players. Two case studies of WIL are presented from programs being run at the University of Georgia and the University of Technology (Sydney). These descriptive cases provide evidence of the different modes of WIL application, which are then used by the authors as a starting point for a discussion on the contribution of WIL to sustainable tourism education. The chapter concludes by considering the potential for such an approach to be embraced by higher education in less formal education contexts such as the gap year.

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Vivina Almeida Carreira and Pedro Bingre do Amaral

This chapter provides an insight into the history of an ecotourism degree in Portugal, the way its objectives were aligned with the pedagogical purposes of the institution that harbors it, as well as the adaptations it went through as the requirements of educational policies and the work market changed since the degree’s inception. The syllabus of this course encompasses a broad range of scientific areas, as it takes advantage of the fact that the Higher School of Agriculture where it is taught is a centre for agro-sciences, forestry and environmental studies. This variety of academic areas fosters synergies with other courses offered on the same premises, and as a consequence ecotourism students may acquire know-how and participate in activities in areas as diverse as the natural resource management (including woodlands and wild game), the processing of agro-food products in rural contexts, the design of tourist routes, food and wine tourism, equine sports and management, organic agriculture, bird watching, nature conservation and entrepreneurship, among others. The syllabus was twice revised to reflect both the feedback of the labor market and the criteria set by the Bologna Convention. After a brief presentation of the course, its objectives and rationale for its launching, an analysis of its evolution is conducted pinpointing the main changes introduced and the reasons that motivated them. The appropriateness of the syllabus to the prospective graduates was evaluated ex-post, by means of inquiries made to former students that provided a vista into their careers in ecotourism after obtaining their diploma.

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Karen Hughes, Aliisa Mylonas and Roy Ballantyne

The nurturing of learners’ soft skills is critical to the development of work-ready tourism graduates. In this chapter we argue that teaching learners to purposefully reflect on situations and, in particular, to critically assess their own and others’ actions and reactions is key to this process. We also maintain that activities and strategies to develop these abilities need to be scaffolded throughout their program. To this end, we use the ideas contained in the 5Rs Reflective Thinking Framework (reporting, responding, relating, reasoning and reconstructing), together with those from the Teaching and Assessment for Reflective Learning (TARL) Model, to present a range of in-class learning experiences and assessment ideas that can be integrated into tourism courses to assist and support learners in becoming effective reflective practitioners.

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Claudia Mössenlechner

Technological advances enable both educational institutions and students to receive, directly access and work with materials and information from prospective employers and, in fact, interact with the tourism industry itself. ePortfolios in higher education have become an omnipresent theme over the last decade, with many universities investing both human and monetary resources. The following chapter is conceptual in its nature and looks at the possibilities that can make use of the connecting elements in ePortfolio work for educational purposes in tourism higher education. The chapter identifies the main concepts and practice of ePortfolios in higher education and delineates the implications of multiple audiences in portfolio work. The ePortfolio Teaching Space is described as an interface of four main spaces in which educators in higher education operate when designing frameworks and tasks. In the literature it became evident that a focus in research regarding pedagogical aspects is necessary, that is, there is a need to take a closer look at the work of the educator when looking at ePortfolios as a context for learning in higher education. Here, an extended framework for task design in ePortfolio work is developed. A focus is put on the dimensions that are relevant for determining the indirect teaching process through task design. The chapter closes with a brief outline of assessment strategies in ePortfolio work and a discussion on ePortfolio adoption issues and challenges.

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Brian King and Hanqin Qiu Zhang

Learners who complete tourism and hospitality degree programs graduate into a world that is often described as the ‘experience economy’. This chapter addresses how graduates can acquire experiential learning through the course of their studies and be equipped for this world as both citizens and professionals in their chosen domain. In preparing graduates for careers in a service-oriented sector, tourism and hospitality higher education lends itself to experiential delivery modes. Whilst internships or cooperative education are the most readily appreciated examples of experiential delivery, there are many other forms, notably service learning. Though an experiential learning approach often involves a strong off-campus emphasis, it can also be applied in classroom settings. There is self-evidently a need for higher education to provide learners with a theoretical base, since critical inquiry distinguishes it from the ‘how to’ emphasis of technical and vocational education. In the present chapter the authors explore how an Asia-based institution – The Hong Kong Polytechnic University – has advanced experiential learning in the curriculum with notable reference to Hotel ICON, a university owned and operated teaching and research hotel. The reference to research as well as to teaching indicates that experiential learning involves knowledge creation as well as application. The authors explain how the mandating of a four-year curriculum for public universities by the Hong Kong government (degrees were previously three years long) has benefited students by extending the scope for innovative experiential learning.

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Gayle Jennings, Olga Junek, Mary-Anne Smith, Sandra Kensbock and Ulrike Kachel

The purpose of this chapter is to narrate and interpret the lived experiences of four research students who variously engaged in a series of research dialogue sessions over a two and a half year period. The research dialogue sessions were designed to generate dialogue through collective learning experiences. The sessions were founded on social learning theories and community of practice principles. The dialogue sessions were instigated by the students’ university research-student supervisor to facilitate enculturation into a university-research culture and acculturation into a qualitative research profession. As part of a process of reflexive praxis, the supervisor asked the four students to write about their individual lived experiences of the research dialogue sessions. Each of the students wrote a narrative tale constructed using minimal equilibrium/disequilibrium emplotments. Thematic analysis was used to interpret and explain their experiences. The students were included in the interpretive processes. Specific recommendations for tourism and hospitality research student training include acknowledgement of and attention to the role of affect in the conduct of qualitative research and experiencing university research cultures, the use of a partnership model of supervision, the importance and inclusion of social learning theories, recognition of the role of supervisors in the establishment and continuance of research dialogue sessions, the power of dialogue for social learning with peers, and a shifting of locus of control from supervisors to students in research dialogue sessions. Importantly for praxis, through the process of engaging in qualitative research dialogue sessions, students learnt how to ‘be in and of’ a qualitative research culture and how to professionally ‘be’ a qualitative researcher.