This timely research review presents and discusses essential readings for those interested in the economics of natural disasters. It features analysis of influential articles on the macroeconomic and regional impacts of natural disasters, natural disaster vulnerability, resilience, recovery and adaptation. Topics covered include short-run and long-run economic impacts, poverty and vulnerability, emerging life-saving technologies, the role of government in fostering resilience and adaptation in response to disasters. This detailed new review will be an invaluable source of reference for researchers and policymakers alike.
Hà Lê Phan and Inga T. Winkler
Water security and disasters are mutually linked. On the one hand, too much water (floods) and too little water (droughts) may constitute disasters. On the other hand, access to water is often a significant challenge during responses to disasters, notwithstanding if they are related to water. Water security plays a pivotal role in all stages of a disaster, from prevention and mitigation through disaster response to recovery and reconstruction. In disaster settings, water security is governed by a complex interplay of different branches of international law. These include international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international environmental and water law, climate change law, international refugee law and human rights law. The chapter seeks to discuss whether these regimes comprehensively govern and achieve water security in times of disasters; whether they have evolved into a body of international disaster law; and whether protection gaps remain and how these could be addressed.
Marie Aronsson-Storrier and Haythem Salama
Contaminated water poses significant challenges to human life and development, and water crises are now being considered as one of the main global risks for the coming decade. In light of recent initiatives such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, the Sustainable Development Goals 2015–2030, and the acknowledgment by the UN General Assembly of the rights to water and sanitation, this chapter examines some of the principal global challenges posed by water contamination through the lens of disaster risk reduction, sustainable development and international human rights law. It finds that water contamination functions as a powerful illustration of how these three areas of international law complement and reinforce each other, and that the links between them should be further explored and developed by actors seeking to address the significant problems caused by the pollution of water.
It has long been established that sustainable development and disasters are closely interlinked at the policy and institutional levels. The focus of this article is to identify the legal issues raised by interoperability between disasters and sustainable development. In particular, the chapter charts the parameters of sustainable development law that are relevant to the context of disasters. In doing so, it identifies that international and regional documents had already prefigured the framework of action to the development and disasters intersection through the lens of prevention. Therefore, legal principles and rules of prevention and cooperation to that effect, as developed in sustainable development law, and more concretely in environmental law, have played an important role in the systematization of rules relevant to the disaster context, and ultimately to the formation of the disaster law.
The role of energy as well as the reliability and security of energy networks is increasingly becoming more critical to modern economic and social developments. The global reliance on energy and the interdependence of related infrastructure nationally, regionally and internationally, underscores the implications of conflict, crisis or disaster situations for reliable energy supplies. Generally, energy security comprises the economic and commercial guaranty of demand and supply of energy resources. Equally and increasingly essential is the safeguarding of infrastructure and facilities used for the production and supply of such resources from risks linked to unresolved conflicts, unmitigated crisis or disaster events. The aim of this chapter is to identify and discuss the relationship between conflicts, crises and disasters on the one hand and security of energy supplies globally on the other hand. It focuses on issues relating to the policy and regulatory aspects of safeguarding critical energy (especially oil and gas) infrastructure and supplies by identifying relevant developments in key regions and countries.