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Edited by Walter Leal Filho, Amanda Lange Salvia and Fernanda Frankenberger

Exploring the important role of education in both pursuing and implementing sustainable development, this timely Handbook highlights how teaching methods at schools and universities can impact the future. It looks at ways not only to inform students about matters related to sustainable development, but also to empower them to adopt behaviours and actions that lead to more sustainable lifestyles.
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Walter Leal Filho and Amanda Lange Salvia

The present Handbook on Teaching and Learning for Sustainable Development offers a wide range of perspectives, and a comprehensive overview of innovative teaching methods and innovative approaches (e.g., technological, non-technological, social and governance) that show how sustainability teaching may be practised. It contributes to a further understanding of: _ the role of sustainable development in different teaching realities; _ the contribution of sustainable development to citizenship; _ future perspectives in the curriculum; _ the means to reorient education for a sustainable future; _ the various challenges in implementing the principles of sustainable development in practice. In this context, the contributions of the authors play a key role and outline the many ramifications of a broader understanding of sustainability.

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Edited by Walter Leal Filho, Amanda Lange Salvia and Fernanda Frankenberger

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Global Production Networks and Rural Development

Southeast Asia as a Fruit Supplier to China

Edited by Bill Pritchard

Bill Pritchard provides an important update on how current trade methodologies are implemented as China becomes one of the world’s largest fresh fruit importers from countries such as Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
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Nattapon Tantrakoonsab and Wannarat Tantrakoonsab

In the past five years, exports of Thai durian have been increasing consistently, dominating the Chinese market. In this study, key informant interviews and analyses of the secondary data revealed changes that affect durian exports, including increasing Chinese demand, the emergence of new durian planting areas, the expansion of the processed durian market, and transportation improvements in Mekong region countries. The empirical analysis also demonstrated that Chinese entrepreneurs have expanded their roles in the value chain to replace Thai entrepreneurs. Although farmers and packing plants may presently benefit from the increasing export volume of durian, concerns arise about the total value capture of the entirety of Thai stakeholders.

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Aungkana Kmonpetch and Waranya Jitpong

Longan is one of three largest tropical fruit export items in Thailand. Over the past decade, increased investment from China in packing houses in production areas has underpinned the tremendous growth of fresh longan exports to China. Reflecting on the trait of the Chinese market that puts less importance on credence attributes than on product attributes of fresh fruits, firms from outside the supply chain as well as incumbent downstream firms appear to have invested in packing houses. The rising number of packing houses, however, did not always translate to intensifying competition among them, which is represented by the stagnant farm gate price of longan. While it is evident that Chinese investment has boosted fresh longan exports to China, its ramifications on value capture of Thai stakeholders are uncertain.

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Edited by Annelies Zoomers, Maggi Leung, Kei Otsuki and Guus Van Westen

This timely Handbook demonstrates that global linkages, flows and circulations merit a more central place in theorization about development. Calling for a mobilities turn, it challenges the sedentarist assumptions which still underlie much policy making and planning for the future.
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Edited by Annelies Zoomers, Maggi Leung, Kei Otsuki and Guus Van Westen

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Alina Rocha Menocal

This Chapter analyses some of the core linkages between democracy and development, including whether development is a pre-requisite for democracy and whether regime type matters for development. It finds that, while economic development per se is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the emergence of democracy, development, and in particular how prosperity is shared across the population and whether development can deliver on citizen expectations and priorities, has a considerable impact on the quality and resilience of democracy. The Chapter also argues that existing literature seeking to establish a causal relationship between regime type and developmental performance remains inconclusive, and the debate is far from settled. By way of conclusion, the chapter posits that, given that most countries in the world today are considered formal democracies, the relevant question and ensuing challenge may no longer be whether democracies or authoritarian systems are better suited to promote development, but rather how democracy can deliver on development needs and expectations more effectively.

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Frances Stewart

The chapter analyses the relationship between democracy and inequalities among groups (horizontal inequalities (HIs)). Democracies are more likely to be associated with lower HIs than non-democracies, because high inequalities may lead to resistance by deprived groups and democratic breakdown, and democracies are more likely to adopt policies which reduce HIs. Statistical evidence across countries supports this view. The relationship depends partly on the group composition of the population and the nature of democratic institutions. Reviewing the experience of some African countries suggests that where there are multiple groups with no one dominating, as in mainland Tanzania, democracy is likely to be most stable and HIs to be lowest. In contrast, where there are two or three sizeable groups with large HIs, as in Cote D’Ivoire and Cameroon, political instability may follow with a breakdown in democratic institutions., Power-sharing democracies can reduce HIS and sustain political stability, illustrated by experience of Ghana and Nigeria.