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Convenience Triangle in White-Collar Crime

Case Studies of Fraud Examinations

Petter Gottschalk

The ‘convenience triangle’ is the dynamic relationship between motive, opportunity, and willingness to commit a crime, which culminates in the illegal acts which constitute white-collar crime. This book aims to discuss the role of the ‘convenience triangle’ in white-collar crime, how it affects the perpetration of these crimes, the impact of this on detection and prevention and the effects of the punitive measures taken against white-collar criminals.
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Edited by Tim Hall and Vincenzo Scalia

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Petter Gottschalk

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Edited by Tim Hall and Vincenzo Scalia

This multidisciplinary collection of essays by leading international scholars explores many pressing issues related to global crime. The book opens with essays that look across this diverse terrain and then moves on to consider specific areas including organised crime, cyber-crime, war-crimes, terrorism, state and private violence, riots and political protest, prisons, sport and crime and counterfeit goods. The book emphasises the centrality of crime to the contemporary global world and mobilises diverse disciplinary positions to help understand and address this.
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Edited by Barney Warf

The Handbook on the Geographies of Corruption offers a comprehensive overview of how corruption varies across the globe. It explores the immense range of corruption among countries, and how this reflects levels of wealth, the centralization of power, colonial legacies, and different national cultures. Barney Warf presents an original and interdisciplinary collection of chapters from established researchers and leading academics that examine corruption from a spatial perspective.
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Behavioral dimension of convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Most theories of white-collar crime can be found along the behavioral dimension. Numerous suggestions have been presented by researchers to explain why famous people have committed financial crime. In this chapter, some of the most prominent theories are presented: differential association theory, theory of self-control and desire-for-control, slippery slope theory, and neutralization theory. Crime is not committed by systems, routines, or organizations. Crime is committed by individuals. White-collar criminals practice a deviant behavior to carry out their offenses. White-collar crime is committed by members of the privileged socioeconomic class who are using their power and influence. Offenders are typically charismatic, have a need for control, have a tendency to bully subordinates, fear losing their status and position, exhibit narcissistic tendencies, lack integrity and social conscience, have no feelings of guilt, and do not perceive themselves as criminals.

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Case studies of cross-border insider trading and market manipulation

Investigating and Prosecuting Across Borders

Janet Austin

The cases of cross-border insider trading and market manipulation that have been pursued by securities regulators over the last 10 years fall within a number of broad categories. This chapter details some of the leading cases pursued by securities regulators in relation to each of these categories. In doing so, this reveals some of highly innovative ways in which securities regulators are detecting and investigating cross-border market abuse. It also demonstrates some of the significant challenges which securities regulators face going forward in their struggle to keep the markets free of market abuse.

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Conclusion

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

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Conclusions and recommendations

Investigating and Prosecuting Across Borders

Janet Austin

This chapter is the conclusion and reflects upon the findings that flow from the previous chapters. It concludes that the analysis undertaken in the book reveals that the transformations to the securities markets in recent years do appear to have given rise to new avenues to engage in cross-border market manipulation and insider trading. In addition, it observes that securities regulators have taken some significant steps to improve their detection and investigative techniques and that they are steadily detecting more complex examples of these offences as a result. However, the author concludes ultimately that more can be done and as such makes some recommendations about how this might best be achieved.

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Convenience in white-collar crime

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Convenience is a concept that was theoretically mainly associated with efficiency in time savings. Today, convenience is associated with a number of other characteristics, such as reduced effort and reduced pain. Convenience is associated with terms such as fast, easy, and safe. Convenience says something about attractiveness and accessibility. A convenient individual is not necessarily bad or lazy. On the contrary, the person can be seen as smart and rational. Convenience orientation is conceptualized as the value that individuals and organizations place on actions with inherent characteristics of saving time and effort. Convenience orientation can be considered a value-like construct that influences behavior and decision-making.