This chapter revisits the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project of 1964 through the eyes of the women singer-songwriters who went to the Black Belt. It highlights the gains and losses, the music, the alternative education programs, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and the voter registration drive. Erenrich examines leadership without followership as it relates to the Freedom Summer Project and encourages readers to reflect upon the benefits and drawbacks of popular education methodological practice. Fifty years later, this chapter celebrates, ruminates on and engages in discourse about one of the most momentous initiatives ever launched in the United States and the part played by women troubadours during that hot Mississippi Summer of 1964.
Claudrena N. Harold
In Chapter 8, the University of Virginia serves as a case study of the challenges facing African American workers at an institution with not only stated commitment to racial diversity but also identifiable markers of progress in those areas. Through discussion of the political and economic battles of African American low-wage earners at UVA from 1969 to 2006, Claudrena N. Harold explores what, if any, progress has been made and holds that low wage African American workers’ concerns must be central to any movement for racial justice.
Educators face the difficult task of creating secure educational spaces in which to discuss traumatic events. This chapter seeks to outline how educators can use video games, comics and cosplay to teach about the horrors, politics and economics of historical warfare and misogyny, while staying true to educational principles and acknowledging the very real cost these events may have had on our students. Using these popular culture icons in conjunction with historical primary sources provide opportunities for students to safely visualize themselves in dangerous situations, to distance themselves from the trauma while sympathetically experiencing it. When students see themselves reflected in their studies, it expands their perceptions and opens their minds to plights of others.
Elizabeth R. Varon
Chapter 5 discusses the life and work of Joseph T. Wilson, a Civil War veteran, through his literary career. Rather than examining Wilson’s book, The Black Phalanx: African American Soldiers in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, and the Civil War, solely as a reference work, Elizabeth R. Varon argues that Wilson’s career as a writer was inseparable from his political activism. In this chapter, Varon considers how Wilson’s lived experiences during the war and, later, in postwar Norfolk impacted and informed his writing.
Charles F. Irons
Chapter 3 examines African American religious leadership during the Reconstruction period. Charles F. Irons discusses the differences in church leadership and autonomy between urban and rural southern areas as contrasting emancipation experiences. Irons argues that the development of independent African American churches, especially in urban areas, was a way of breaking from white paternalism, and further discusses the correlation between religious power and political power.
Nicholas O. Warner
This chapter comparatively analyzes the films Twelve O’Clock High and Glory, which rank among cinema’s most interesting and compelling treatments of leadership. Both films had a significant impact on public awareness of certain facets of combat experience and military history. Warner blends leadership theory with analysis of cinematic factors, such as dialogue, storyline, characterization, cinematography, mise en scène and sound, to demonstrate the ways that such elements combine to create powerful, thought-provoking and nuanced portrayals of leadership (and of leader-follower relations) in the context of war.
Mark A. Menaldo
This chapter focuses on the moral and psychological consequences of destructive leadership through a literary examination of Peruvian Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa’s epic political thriller, The Feast of the Goat (2000). Vargas Llosa uses realism to bring to life the complex psychological portrait of the Caribbean despot Rafael Leonidas Trujillo. Trujillo, who fits the stereotypical Latin American leader, embraces machismo as the source of his political power, and, as a result, his character shows no consideration for ethical and political principles. Trujillo’s will to power enervates the wills of his followers and denies the entire country its freedom, resulting in the destruction of the community’s moral imagination.
Julian Maxwell Hayter
Chapter 7 focuses on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as a direct assault on institutionalized racial discrimination. Julian Maxwell Hayter examines the political and racial climates that influenced the act and discusses a number of the act’s key titles to show how it moved beyond eliminating racial segregation. Hayter shows that while the act did not end discrimination and segregation in all forms, it introduced a shift in American racial reforms.
Edited by Julian M. Hayter and George R. Goethals
Kristin M.S. Bezio
Within the past decade, video games—often associated with violence and shooting—have entered a new stage in their development as a sophisticated and even artistic medium. In light of popular and news attacks on the ethical value of games, many independent development companies and designers have sought to make use of digital platforms to evolve the medium away from violent (or, at least, only violent) content and to use digital gameplay to encourage empathy and human connectivity. In this chapter, I discuss a few examples of these games, including Journey (thatgamecompany, 2012) and the Mass Effect series (2007–17) both of which use the interactivity to evoke imaginative empathy and produce a common human connection via digital gaming, thereby encouraging players to engage in leadership and transformational change in the real world.