How do we explain why immigrants are conventionally perceived as a security threat in both Europe and the United States? Supporters of restrictive immigration policies argue that immigrants pose three kinds of threats. First, immigrants are assumed to pose a socio-economic threat by taking jobs from natives, reducing their wages, and consuming more social benefits than they contribute by paying taxes. Second, immigrants are regarded as threatening national identity and societal cohesion because they purportedly refuse to assimilate, supposedly preferring to form ethno-religious enclaves. Third, immigrants are characterized as a threat to public safety by increasing criminality and being potential terrorists. These assumptions frame anti-migrant discourse, inform government practices and policies, and legitimize anti-migrant feelings. Security concerns, especially after 9/11, thus fuel – and are fueled- by xenophobia. Yet, there is strong evidence that migrant phobia has less to do with established facts about immigration than with unarticulated fears that immigrants are threatening the core foundations of Western societies. Furthermore, these speculative concerns inform restrictive immigration policies, and thus reinforce the spiral of suspicion and fear. This leads to a vicious circle: immigrants are perceived as a security threat on the basis of fears fueled by speculative concerns that frame security policies; this results in an increase in actual threats (such as the emergence of homegrown terrorists). Subsequently, the category constituting the “others” is broadened to include those outside the mainstream of society being targeted by discrimination and racist practices. The consequence is a reinforcement of the cycle of exclusion.
Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia
Latin America is the site of overlapping forms of voluntary and involuntary migration across borders and within them. The region has a long history of immigration, emigration and rural–urban migration to cities. It also has significant experience as a site of expelling and receiving refugees. Less well documented is the considerable internal displacement of populations due to development schemes, natural disasters and violence. These multiple forms of migration are provoking a new debate on the definition of refugee status and the forms of protection to which displaced populations are entitled. For the most part, Latin American governments have sought to manage, rather than prevent, forced migration. In some cases, displacement crises have triggered new forms cooperation and partnership within and across borders which may also help consolidate a stronger regional security community.
Christopher S. Browning
The chapter argues that claims about the security implications of migration are always politically framed and that to understand the nature of the migration–security nexus it is necessary to be attuned to the various (and often implicit) assumptions that underlie claims about the security effects and threats of migration. The chapter therefore provides an overview of different ways of conceptualising, theorising and questioning security. While this enables us to understand the inherently contested nature of security and different claims about the nature of the migration–security nexus, it also points to the extent to which the language of security is politically motivating and powerful as a result of its connection to the protection of core values. Because of this the chapter argues debates about security are infused with ethical considerations about whose security is seen to count, how that security is to be achieved, and how much security should actually be desired. The chapter then applies these theoretical reflections to the issue of migration, with a particular focus on the costs and benefits of migration for different referent objects of security and the constitutive effects which debating migration in the language of security can entail.
Dan Zuberi and Ariel Taylor
In this chapter we explore the creation of social-spatial inequality in two of Canada’s largest and fastest growing cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Drawing on a tradition of critical scholarship in urban planning and gentrification studies, we turn the ‘securitization of migration’ on its head by asking: security from what and security for whom? Through an examination of socio-spatial dislocation and the regulation of ‘anti-social’ behaviour we argue that securing the urban core for an influx of upper-middle class populations is achieved through the production and regulation of neoliberal urban spaces. By transforming neighbourhoods, public spaces, and sociocultural norms the urban core is secured for the accumulation of capital, despite the insecurity it creates for a large segment of the city’s most vulnerable populations.
Mikhail A. Alexseev
The chapter analyzes migration trends and related security issues in post-Soviet Russia and Central Asia, with a particular focus on the role of state institutions and perceptions of their viability in shaping the nature of migration and public responses to it in host societies. Showing how state transformations after the Soviet collapse blurred the traditional distinctions between push and pull factors, as well as internal versus external, legal versus illegal, and temporary versus permanent migration, the chapter argues that systemic anti-migrant hostility, aggressive exclusionism, and erosion of intergroup relations in host states present the central security challenge concerning migration. The chapter explains variation in responses to migration and its securitization as well as its flash potential to spark off violence with reference to the immigration security dilemma drawing on mass opinion surveys and violent events data as well as case studies from the region covering major instances of migration-related intergroup conflict.
Marianne Potvin and Diane E. Davis
This chapter explores the linkages between migration and security through the lens of resilience. The rise in the number of people displaced by conflict has resulted in the expansion and transformation of refugee settlements across the globe. To the extent that these sites are the objects of sustained securitization interventions by multilateral, national and local actors, they are receiving increased attention on the global security agenda. The existence and operations of refugee camps and other spaces of “temporary” settlement both channel the resilience of displaced peoples as well as call into question the longer-term stability of the regions in which they are located. These sites can be construed as forms of both positive and negative resilience, since they provide protection and reduce vulnerabilities, while simultaneously acting as amplifiers of social unrest, exclusion and inequalities. This chapter assesses the multiple scales at which risks and securitization strategies – ranging from global security risks, to challenges to national sovereignty, to a range of (in)securities occurring at the urban and neighborhood scales – unfold in such contexts. Empirical evidence will be drawn from the Middle East, particularly the case of Syrian refugees in Lebanon, and will focus on the inter-connectedness of causalities between scales.
Pietro Castelli Gattinara and Laura Morales
This contribution tackles the link between migration and security from the point of view of public opinion research, looking at the role of security concerns in shaping public attitudes towards migrants, and exploring party competition over migration as a security issue. The aim of this chapter is, first, to critically review and systematize the growing research investigating the migration–security nexus in public opinion and party politics studies, providing the conceptual and analytical tools for understanding the political dynamics that led to the securitization of migration in European polities. Second, the chapter shall build upon available multinational survey data to question when and how the idea of migration as a security concern first emerged, and when it came to dominate public attitudes towards migrants, suggesting individual and context-level factors explaining the prevalence of securitized understandings. Third, the chapter uses party manifesto data to explore the way mainstream and radical parties in Western Europe address immigration affairs, focusing on the relative importance of law and order vis-à-vis more traditional economic and cultural arguments. In so doing, this chapter not only offers an innovative exploration of the discursive construction of migration by political parties, but it also provides a quantitative assessment of securitization theories, offering an empirical overview of the parallel development of the security framework in public opinion and in party competition.
Christina Greenaway and Brian D. Gushulak
Pandemics and epidemics of infectious disease have created human havoc throughout history. The plague, cholera, and smallpox decimated civilizations and killed millions of people. More recently, the increasing frequency of and the international spread of serious emerging infectious diseases such as H1N1 influenza, SARS, Ebola virus disease and Zika virus infection have produced serious health and economic impacts and are threats to global health security. Numerous factors play a role in the emergence and spread of new infections including our highly mobile, economically interdependent and interconnected world which provides numerous opportunities and may facilitate the rapid spread of infectious diseases. Human mobility and migration have increased dramatically over the past five decades, increasing the potential spread of infectious diseases. Over this time, migrants who made up only a small proportion of people who are globally mobile have not been major drivers in recent outbreaks. Additionally the movement of migrants has not been associated with significant spread of infections to host populations. During the past two years however, the world has been witnessing the worst refugee crisis since World War II. Millions of displaced persons, many who have limited access to health care are seeking refuge and their movements have the potential to destabilize fragile health systems. The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa demonstrated global ill-preparedness to detect and respond to infectious disease crises and highlighted our collective vulnerability. Weakness at many levels led to a costly and prolonged outbreak. Underdeveloped surveillance and health care systems in affected countries resulted in delayed identification of the outbreak that quickly overwhelmed local health systems. The slow and poorly coordinated international response and the lack of rapid diagnostic tests, effective therapeutics or vaccines led to a protracted outbreak with numerous deaths. Safeguarding our global health security will require a coordinated global public health strategy and framework that will address individual health security providing universal health care for all including refugees and displaced persons. This will require strengthening local health systems and public health surveillance, strong global leadership, sufficient funding and a coordinated research platform to develop the tools to address the next threat. In this chapter we will examine the determinants of the increasing frequency of pandemics and the migration crisis, the interaction between the two, how they are challenging our global health security and possible solutions to address this complex issue.
Valsamis Mitsilegas and Niovi Vavoula
This chapter examines key privacy concerns raised by the establishment and operation of EU large-scale information systems (the Schengen Information System – SIS II, the Eurodac. the Visa Information System – VIS, and the Entry/Exit System – EES) as well as the EU PNR Directive. By dividing the chronology of the EU developments into three waves, it is argued that the current landscape in relation to the systematic collection, storage and further processing of personal data carries the characteristics of mass surveillance of movement through digital technologies. This surveillance of mobility, which is focused on prevention, has become the normal and logical response to future threats disregarding the high standards of privacy protection as advanced by the EU Court of Justice.
In its current configuration, the literature on securitization – the process of integrating an issue into a security framework that emphasizes policing and defence – relies mainly on two logics: the logic of exception and the logic of routine. For some scholars, these two approaches to the study of securitization frame a battleground on which a conflict among various structural, critical, cultural and sociological standpoints is waged. Although many graduate students cut their theoretical teeth on these debates, little has been gained thus far in the battle for possession of the field. By questioning the literature’s underlying understanding of these two logics as opposing and competing, I pursue two aims in this chapter. First, I caution scholars against overdrawing distinctions between the two logics, for it is not clear that they are mutually exclusive. Second, I seek to recognize and harness the strengths of both logics, and to identify the fruitful theoretical ‘bricks’ each framework contributes to our understanding of securitization. To do so, the chapter lays out two main conceptual elements – performance and path dependence – and proposes a contiguum approach.