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Hannes Zacher and Megan J. Bissing-Olson

In this chapter, we first explain what is meant by between-person variability (or interindividual differences) and within-person variability (or intraindividual variability and change) in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Second, we describe two quantitative daily diary studies that examined both between-person and within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Third, we present a conceptual framework for investigating person- and context-related predictors of stable between-person differences and dynamic within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Fourth, we discuss different research designs and analytical strategies to investigate between- and within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. We conclude by discussing implications for organisational practice.

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Pascal Paillé

A great deal of research has addressed the role of immediate manager in the achievement of environmental sustainability by putting the stress more often than not on human resource management practices. However, much less is known about the underlying moral obligations of immediate managers to support their subordinates in developing their environmental concern. In this chapter, we propose describing, through an ethic of care, how the immediate manage may help subordinates to behave eco-friendly.

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Regina Hahn and Felix Ostertag

The exploration of discretionary pro-environmental behaviour in companies is at the core of environmental sustainability. This chapter gives an overview of existing concepts, models, and research streams relevant for explaining voluntary pro-environmental behaviour of employees (VPBE). It illustrates their theoretical grounding, explains connections between different models and determinants, and presents the current status of research on different sources of VPBE. Based on this exploration, as well as a discussion of the specific characteristics of VPBE, we develop a comprehensive model of VPBE that integrates existing concepts, and deduce behavioural interventions in the form of measures and instruments to enhance VPBE.

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Terry Tudor and Cleber Dutra

Pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) within organisations is governed by a number of factors, related to the staff (e.g. attitudes and beliefs), as well as the organisation (e.g. bureaucracy, leadership and culture). Traditionally, approaches to effecting behaviour change have been set within a psycho-sociological context. However, given the complexity and interrelated nature of the factors, this chapter argues for the need to employ transition processes that are primarily represented by the multi-level perspective (MLP) and social practices’ (SPs) affiliates. These multifaceted theoretical developments offer improved possibilities to best manage the change processes. They could also contribute to an improved understanding of how to change employees’ PEB both at their workplace and during their external societal roles/activities. Recommendations for practitioners are also suggested.

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Simon Lockrey, Linda Brennan, Karli Verghese, Warren Staples and Wayne Binney

Strategic planning and implementation issues are evident when organisations seek environmental sustainability outcomes. Critically, this can involve issues between employees and their behaviour, and their connection to, and within, higher-level social structures. Structuration theory is used to determine if employees have the power to change contexts for actions supporting the environment, or if they capitulate in the face of structural resistance. Further, we elaborate on the resources that employees may draw upon and rules that guide them, both of which are used to reproduce or change social structures that enable sustainable practice. We test a structuration framework using two empirical cases examining organisational strategy, thus applying a new lens to develop a unique understanding of these contexts. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on how the model we use can inform new research and practice to identify and navigate structural barriers to implement environmental sustainability within organisations.

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Angela Ruepert and Linda Steg

Organisations are increasingly recognising that environmental problems will reduce if their employees act more pro-environmentally. However, pro-environmental behaviour (at home or at work) generally implies a conflict between immediate gratifications or financial gains and long-term benefits for the environment. Yet, despite this, people are motivated to act pro-environmentally when they are focused on benefiting the environment. In this chapter, we discuss a conceptual framework to understand, predict and promote pro-environmental behaviour at work. We identify two main factors affecting pro-environmental actions: the values people endorse and contextual factors. We propose that people are more likely to act pro-environmentally at work when they strongly endorse biospheric values. Biospheric values influence behaviour by strengthening the environmental self-identity and personal norms to act pro-environmentally at work. Yet, contextual factors can prevent (or promote) people acting upon their personal norms. Contextual factors may not only inhibit or enable pro-environmental behaviour at work, but they can also affect the extent to which people focus on benefiting the environment, which affects pro-environmental actions. People are more likely to act pro-environmentally when the context makes them focus on the environment, even more so when people have relatively weak biospheric values.

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Cristina E. Ciocirlan

This chapter aims to review recent literature on green human resources management (GHRM), outline directions for future research, and discuss implications for practitioners. In particular, the functional activities of green recruiting and selection, green orientation and onboarding, green training and development, green leadership and culture, employee involvement and participation in sustainability, green performance evaluation, green compensation, and green talent management are reviewed. These functional green HR activities are the most developed in the extant literature; they also hold the most promise for the future of GHRM as a discipline (Renwick et al. 2016). To enhance environmental performance, practitioners should perform these activities in an integrated, coherent fashion. They should also make a business case for sustainability by demonstrating the strategic role of GHRM in organisations. Research that crosses disciplinary boundaries and uses cross-cultural samples, qualitative and mixed research methods, and longitudinal time series, is needed to advance the field.

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Brenton M. Wiernik, Deniz S. Ones, Stephan Dilchert and Rachael M. Klein

This chapter reviews research on the individual antecedents of pro-environmental behaviours and discusses implications of these antecedents for understanding, predicting, and managing employee green behaviours. We review meta-analytic findings on the contributions of environmental awareness/knowledge, environmental attitudes, stable individual differences, demographic characteristics, and interventions on individual pro-environmental behaviour. We also review recent primary studies examining the impact of these antecedents on employee green behaviours in the workplace. Throughout the chapter, we consider the implications of research findings for improving employee environmental performance using human resource management.

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Victoria K. Wells, Diana Gregory-Smith and Danae Manika

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Bilal Afsar, Asad Shahjehan and Imad Shah

Organisational leaders can motivate followers to engage in pro-environmental behaviours. Although employees’ pro-environmental behaviours are critical to the success of organisational environmental initiatives, there is little understanding of the leadership mechanisms that foster these behaviours. As pro-environmental behaviour is a voluntary behaviour, not every leadership style is likely to be equally effective. This chapter explains important leadership styles that can affect employee’s pro-environmental behaviours. Specifically, the effects of transformational, transactional, environmental, environmental transformational, green entrepreneurial and spiritual leadership on employees’ pro-environmental behaviours are presented. We will also discuss which leaders’ behaviours are critical to motivate an employee to engage in pro-environmental behaviour. This chapter contributes to the literature on, and practice of, the subject by examining various leadership styles, which has hardly been studied, and unveils unique circumstances for decision-making.