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Paolo Novak

At first glance borders and boundaries seem to be unambiguously spatial objects. Paolo Novak, however, considers three decades of assistance for Afghan refugees in Pakistan through a temporal lens, drawing attention to the changing rate of labour and refugee flows, the differentiated temporal experience of boundary-crossing and the coming into being of boundary lines themselves. His key concept is rhythm. The chapter not only assesses the temporal aspects of the Durand Line (the linear marker separating Afghanistan and Pakistan), but also the River Indus, which at this point forms the boundary between Islamabad and Peshawar provinces within Pakistan. Novak uses Lefebvre’s idea of rhythmanalysis to provide a critical interpretation of three familiar concepts: time–space compression, border biographies and the refugee cycle regularly used in border studies. In each case this novel reading of a familiar idea reveals a diverse set of experiences of time and space. For example, while border biographies can vividly identify key moments in the life of a border, these temporal breaks need to be set against various other temporalities (of the world-system, of regional trade, of national interventions) to be understood. The concept of rhythm developed here usefully depicts the dynamic and hierarchical nature of an uneven social field by drawing attention to the multiplicity of different tempos that can be heard simultaneously – beats that are distinct but related and which, together, produce the vast unity that we seek to disentangle. Keywords: rhythm, time–space compression, border biographies, refugee cycles, Afghanistan, Pakistan

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Melanie Griffiths

Despite a long-standing recognition of the importance of time for structuring social experience, and of the considerable variation of perceptions of time between people and across social contexts, migration scholars have long neglected the temporal dimension. This chapter addresses the neglect by examining changing temporal conditions, restrictions and opportunities embedded in British immigration regulations affecting ‘deportable’ migrants. It will argue that the immigration legislation and Ministers draw on multiple senses of time: from bureaucratic, measurable time to a phenomenological sense of lived time; a linear progressive time; monstrously circular time; and as a commodity that can be accumulated, lost and stolen. The chapter will argue that the immigration rules operate through ‘temporal governance’ evident, for example, in the numerous and complicated temporal hurdles that serve to make possible, or instantly nullify, immigration applications. It will also suggest that the importance of lived time, acknowledged through the rights to respect of one’s private and family life, is increasingly devalued and delegitimised in favour of less ‘democratically’ available considerations. Keywords: immigration regulations, deportation, bureaucratic time, lived time, temporal governance, UK

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Ben Page

This chapter makes a conceptual leap from James Joyce’s Ulysses to Bergson’s notion of duration in order to finally discuss an ethnographic moment during a meal in Cameroon and, in that journey, to connect food to migrant subjectivity and self-actualization. It argues that this conceptual lens can be of value to breaking down the idea that the timespace of the migrant-subject has any essential boundary marked by an inside/outside that is contiguous with the space of the subject’s body and a beginning/end that is contemporaneous with the times of the subject’s ‘migration’. This is an immersion into the interactive field that food studies and migration studies offer with mnemonic, embodied and temporally constituted elements of becoming that unfold through the flow of experience. Following Bergson, the analysis explores two types of time: spatialized time (associated with the intellect) and real time (or duration), which is associated with intuition. In this context the emotional aspirations of becoming and being are captured in and through movement and the rhythms, affective energies and the forces that embodiment entails when the mundane actions of everyday life such as preparing and consuming food are disaggregated into life-journeys, migrant-journeys and journeys for research. Thus movement here becomes a vessel for subject formation, but challenges any sense of the spatial co-incidence of subject and body through these snapshots of imagined, social and research life. Keywords: food, time, duration, becoming, subjectivity, Cameroon

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Edited by Elizabeth Mavroudi, Ben Page and Anastasia Christou

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Ben Page, Anastasia Christou and Elizabeth Mavroudi

This chapter argues that (despite some important exceptions) time, timing and temporality remain under-analysed in migration studies. It suggests that filling this gap is not just a question of rounding out the academic field, but that a focus on time has particular merits for developing distinctive insights into migrants’ own understandings of their own experiences. The chapter sets out the aim of the book, which is to critically assess the value of analysing international migration through a framework of time, space and timespace. It traces a journey from a focus on time to a focus on timespace, and on to a focus on time again. It argues that the critique of a hierarchy of separated time and space (which was at the centre of the emergence of the concept of timespace) has now been largely internalized so that, at this point, there is merit in reflecting on the differences between time and space through a plurality of conceptual frameworks. Keywords: time, timespace, temporality, space, international migration, migration studies

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Jørgen Carling

This chapter examines the spatio-temporal constitution of families from Cape Verde that are divided by migration. How does transnational family life unfold in time and space, and how does it matter to questions of power, agency and experience? The chapter starts from the premise that time and space are inseparable aspects of the transnational, but makes the case for addressing the two in contrasting ways. Time should be appreciated as a linear and measurable dimension, even as other perspectives dominate the temporal turn in migration research. Space, by contrast, should not be seen primarily as an abstract dimension, since the spatial aspect of migration and transnationalism is primarily about engagement with specific places. These arguments underpin a view of mobility as separations and unifications with people and places, rather than as movement across space. The chapter refers to this as ‘relative mobility’ and shows how it produces conjunctures at specific times in transnational lives. The analysis draws upon a study of childhood and motherhood in Cape Verdean families, and makes connections from the time-geography of Torsten Hägerstrand to contemporary research on transnationalism. Keywords: transnational families, time geography, linear time, place, relative mobility, Cape Verde

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Hila Zaban

The chapter introduces a case study that is distinctive not only because it is empirically unfamiliar, but also because it runs against the grain of many migration stories in which people move from poorer parts of the world to richer ones. Instead it looks at the movement of affluent Jews who are leaving ‘the West’ (in particular France) and moving to the Jerusalem neighbourhood of Baka. Whilst Zaban acknowledges that the resources of these households mean that they appear to move freely of their own accord, she also argues that such flows are actually highly constrained and in some ways determined by social structures in both the sending and receiving countries. For example, the role played by the organisations in Israel that support new migrants or the legislative rules around taxation in Israel mean that what appears to be an individual’s choice is not made in a vacuum but in a context where certain ‘choices’ become far more likely than others. This dialogue between choice and constraint becomes particularly pertinent to the themes of this book when it illustrates how the choices of one generation become the constraints of another in Baka. So the space of the study can only possibly be understood through addressing stories of how it has changed over time: time, space, structure and agency swirl together in the production of stories about place and mobility. Thus the Arab housing stock in Baka ‘abandoned’ in the 1940s appeals to the first generation of incomers because it is seen as authentically Middle Eastern. It becomes ripe for gentrification by immigrants in the 1970s, and this gentrification in turn limits who can afford to move to Baka in the current day. Equally, the temporalities of immigration to Israel are shaped by Israeli military activity in the Middle East that produces a less comfortable context for Jews in the West. The moment when people move to Israel to escape hostility in Paris is produced by events in Israel itself – the chapter shows how the timing and spacing of migration is hard to separate when considered over generations. Keywords: choice, constraint, gentrification, inter-generational change, structuration, Israel

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Francis L. Collins and Sergei Shubin

This chapter explores the links between migration, temporality and subjectivity, and provides a critical analysis of the standard treatment of time in the study of international student mobility, which is usually understood in terms of maximising utility in the future by moving across a measurable grid of time and space in the present. In contrast, this chapter seeks out the complex, unexpected and ineffable experiences of temporality among young people on the move. Building their argument from Heidegger’s Being and Time, Collins and Shubin seek to move beyond linear and compartmentalised accounts of time by claiming that human being is constituted by different temporalities simultaneously. Such an examination draws out the temporal complexity whereupon age/life stage, mobility and the development of skills and competences are all seen in a broader focus and in coexistence with futures, pasts and presents of migrants. In this framing the authors highlight a discussion that moves beyond the principles of utility maximisation in which students are perceived to be undertaking journeys with the goal of achieving strategic objectives. Hence, a temporal complexity can reveal the salience of subjectivity in mobility; and, by extension, student migrants can be understood as undergoing processes of becoming, transformative and expressive of ambiguity which may entail anxiety and uncertainty. However, as the authors underscore, the latter need not be unproductive affects. Keywords: international students, mobilities, non-linear time, subjectivity, becoming, affect

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Jennifer McGarrigle and Eduardo Ascensão

This chapter explores the spatial and temporal dimensions that shape migrant lived experience in the context of Lisbon, Portugal. In particular it analyses the temporary character of migration, work and movement. The chapter focuses on onward migration as a complex process of mobility encompassing the interplay between the structures of migration governance and migrant agency in terms of temporal emplacement. The analysis is grounded on two time threads following Ingold’s (1993) separate but intertwined divisions of time, that is, biographical/historical and everyday time. The biographical timespace of the aspirational trajectories of (predominantly) Muslim migrant men from Bangladesh, India and Pakistan contributes to creating the particularities of the conditions that play out in the everyday timespace of Lisbon in an era of economic crises. The authors’ findings point to pathways of rupture and discontinuity in flow, fragmented between different places and the entanglements of the two time threads. This further points to the tensions and interactions between the two time threads, and hence the inherent multiplicity of timespace in migration processes. Keywords: temporary migration, onward migration, migration governance, migrant agency, urban space, Portugal

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Alex Ma

This chapter examines temporality and self-development in relation to the well-being of foreign domestic workers in Singapore. The interpretation of self-development in this instance is drawn from the economist Amartya Sen’s understanding of progress as an increase in an individual’s capabilities. Two moments in timespace are important here: initial adjustment to life in Singapore (called ‘last time’), and later transitions to a position where there are some possibilities for self-development (called ‘already time’). In this way, temporal structures are shown to be integral to the welfare of migrants. A key element in understanding migrant welfare is clarity in obtaining knowledge of cultural and human capital. A lack of the latter can further suppress agency, and the threat of deportation can become pronounced. At the same time, the Filipino and Indonesian workers in this sample also engaged in educational classes which aided self-development and hence contributed to agency over time. All these trajectories are interlinked with the future of migrant temporalities as much as time is a core component of all the stages of their current welfare. Keywords: foreign domestic workers, migrant welfare, capabilities, self-development, migrant agency, Singapore