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Edited by Ada Scupola and Lars Fuglsang

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Services, Experiences and Innovation

Integrating and Extending Research

Edited by Ada Scupola and Lars Fuglsang

Whilst innovation has traditionally focused on manufacturing, recently research surrounding service innovation has been flourishing. Furthermore, as consumers become ever more sophisticated and look for experiences, a research field investigating this topic has also emerged. This book aims to develop an integrated approach to the field of experience and services through innovation by showing that it is necessary to take several factors into account. As such, it makes a substantial and compelling contribution to the interdependencies between innovation, services and experience research.
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Ai-Girl Tan

This chapter shares the essence of zen as it has been a cultural core of innovation and creativity in management. The chapter focuses on how habits of zen are themselves elements of creativity.

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Alessandro Antonietti and Barbara Colombo

Creativity is essential in the development of advertisements. This study discusses the importance of qualities that a creative advertisement should possess. It also addresses naive people’s awareness of the mental mechanisms in the creative advertisement development process. The role of music in producing creative advertisements is also discussed. An exemplary fieldwork research study was carried out, which links to what was discussed earlier in this study.

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Nasir Salari

Culture has a profound influence on the innovative capacity of a society. A society’s cultural attributes and values provide directions to the process of technological development. Societies’ culture can either foster or inhibit innovation development. Culture is one of the most important determinants of consumer behaviour, including consumers’ resistance to innovative products or any kind of newness. However, one of the main issues in cultural studies in marketing is how to define and operationalize culture, whether individual or national. This chapter discusses that both emic and etic approaches are required to investigate the cultural influence on innovation resistance. The chapter begins with the definitions and operationalizations of culture, followed by a review of previous studies on culture and innovation adoption. Finally a comprehensive conceptual framework linking cultural variables to innovation resistance will be provided.

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Yingying Qian

Although the power of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on new product adoption has been examined by many prior researchers, this chapter is one of the first efforts to aim to explore the effects of eWOM when it is the first information received by consumers about the product. It is worth noting that this research involves two sets of comparisons. First, it compares the effect of consumers’ first exposure to eWOM with the effect of advertising, a traditional channel for consumers to gather initial knowledge about the product. Secondly, it compares the power of positive eWOM information versus negative eWOM information on innovation adoption, via the found effects. This research is also very likely the first to study the power of positive eWOM, negative eWOM and advertising, as well as the possible influence of the sequence of these three kinds of information being shown to consumers on new product adoption. An exploratory qualitative research has been conducted. The results (1) put forward new impacts that eWOM could have on new product adoption; (2) show that positive eWOM is more effective for new product adoption than commercial advertising through found intermediate effects; (3) demonstrate that the obstructive force of negative eWOM is greater than the driving force of positive eWOM on new product adoption through some of these intermediate impacts; (4) indicate that different sequences of receiving advertising, positive and negative eWOM information influence people’s willingness to adopt a new product. Based on the findings from prior studies and our interviews, this chapter designs a future consumer experiment and selects cosmetics as the target product type. This research enables marketers to gain a more comprehensive insight into the effects of eWOM and advertising on new product adoption.

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Mai Khanh Tran

Customer co-creation has been an increasingly discussed concept within the innovation field in recent years. This study traces the development of this concept since it first appeared in 1976. By conducting content analysis of 588 academic articles and case studies, the evolution of the concept of customer co-creation has been properly depicted. Alongside the elaboration of this evolution, related issues such as the complexity and the conceptualization of types of customer values are also discussed.

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Eva Hoff and Ingegerd Carlsson

This chapter outlines important aspects of the creative personality. The individual is viewed from the four major theoretical perspectives in personality psychology: the Trait Approach, the Dynamic Approach, the Learning Approach and the Social-Cognitive Approach. The Trait Approach presents superordinate personality factors that are claimed to explain a great part of human personality. The factor Openness is strongly connected to creativity. The Dynamic Approach regards unconscious mechanisms as well as developmental factors as important aspects of creative personality. The Learning Approach focuses on environmental prerequisites for creative personality. By rewarding non-conformist behaviour, creative behaviour is formed. The Social-Cognitive Approach weaves several aspects into their idea of personality, for instance that there is important variation within people depending on situational factors. Depending on whether the organizational climate is perceived as conducive for an employee, the climate will function as creativity enhancing.

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Colin Cheng

The service sector is the biggest sector in all the major economies of the world. Competition is fierce and innovation in this sector is no less important than innovation in the manufacturing sector. This study attempts to identify a couple of key factors that can affect innovation performance in the service sector. Resource-based theory and dynamic capabilities theory are used in this study to unlock the intricate effects of market orientation, resource orientation and business model choice on new service performance. Based on the survey data provided by 235 firms in Taiwan, this study found that the interaction of market orientation and resource orientation exerts a significant impact on new service performance. The business model choice further complicates this cause-and-effect relationship.