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Edited by Robin Hickman, Beatriz Mella Lira, Moshe Givoni and Karst Geurs

With social inequity in urban spaces becoming an increasing concern in our modern world, The Elgar Companion to Transport, Space and Equity explores the relationships between transport and social equity. Transport systems and infrastructure investment can lead to inequitable travel behaviours, with certain socio-demographic groups using particular parts of the transport system and accessing particular activities and opportunities.
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Transit Oriented Development and Sustainable Cities

Economics, Community and Methods

Edited by Richard D. Knowles and Fiona Ferbrache

This book provides new dimensions and a contemporary focus on sustainable transport, urban regeneration and development in eight countries spanning four continents at different stages of development. It examines the role of transit oriented development (TOD) in improving urban sustainability and providing different transport choices, exploring how these can be implemented in modern cities.
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Aharon Kellerman

In the previous Chapters (4_7) we discussed the numerous uses and appli¬cations of the Internet for people, companies, and systems, all within urban contexts. All of these uses and applications have come already into operation so far. In this last chapter of Part II of the book we are about to explore a rather upcoming application of IoT, probably being the most extensive, daring and crucial one, namely communications by and to vehicles, thus turning them into driverless AVs.

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Aharon Kellerman

We will begin this chapter with the summaries of the previous chapters, pre¬sented in sequence. We will then move to an interpretation of the Internet as a general-purpose technology, and finally, we will conclude the book with an evaluation of the general theme of the book as presenting Internet applications, followed by Internet implications, within an urban framework.

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Aharon Kellerman

In the previous chapter, we outlined numerous services that urbanites have traditionally obtained in urban physical space, and which they now growingly pursue through the Internet. Individuals, who use their Internet connectivity, whether fixed and/or mobile, for the performance of service activities, find themselves simultaneously present in physical space bodily and within Internet space virtually. Hence, this chapter is devoted to an exposure and interpreta¬tion of the emerging hybrid dual-space society, consisting of the double pres¬ences of individuals in urban physical and Internet virtual spaces. The chapter will focus on the very conception of hybrid dual-space and its emergence, followed by an exposure of the ways in which urbanites experience it, as well as function within it.

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Aharon Kellerman

This chapter presents the development, structure, and distribution of the Internet for people, as well as of the IoT for non-living entities. The chapter will highlight, first, the history of the Internet and its structure. In this dis¬cussion, special attention will be devoted to the comprehensive nature of the Internet, in its double role as a communications medium and an information service, as well as to its becoming mobile, as of the late 1990s.

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Aharon Kellerman

The Internet is consumed as a powerful communications, business, and infor¬mation tool, by commercial, industrial and service businesses, as well as by organizations and societies of all types. As such, the Internet is important for them, similar to its importance for individuals, as portrayed in Chapters 4_5. However, the Internet for businesses is not meaningful just for its consump¬tion, thus presenting a demand side. The Internet for companies and organi¬zations constitutes also a supply side, since companies serve as producers of products and services sold to individual customers, who are also Internet sub¬scribers. Thus, the Internet per se may serve as a mediating channel between demand and supply, as being the two sides of transaction processes between companies and their customers. Thus, in this chapter, we will elaborate, first, on the penetration processes of the Internet into the operations of companies and organizations, notably small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and the numerous uses of the Internet pursued by them.

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The Internet City

People, Companies, Systems and Vehicles

Aharon Kellerman

Exploring the history of the Internet, from pre-conception, to the possibilities of an Internet-based future, The Internet City presents ways in which the Internet and urban life intersect. The book interprets how the contemporary city is becoming fully based on Internet technologies in all of its major dimensions: the daily activities of urbanites and urban companies, the operations of urban systems, and the functioning of the upcoming driverless vehicles.
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Aharon Kellerman

This chapter will elaborate on the uses of the Internet by urbanites for their obtaining of urban services, which were previously pursued solely in physical space (see also Kellerman 2014). In the following section, we will discuss the advantages in the obtaining of urban services via the Internet, followed by elaborations of specific urban services currently consumed, at least partially, also through the Internet.

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Aharon Kellerman

Our discussions in the three previous chapters (4_6), on the uses of the Internet by people and companies, have assumed the use of the Internet for commu¬nications and information services by humans, for private as well as business uses. In this chapter, we move to yet another Internet-based dimension of cities, namely communications within and between urban systems, as well as communications between them and their human operators and users. These latter uses and operations by and for systems are based on the IoT technology, which we highlighted back in Chapter 3.