Browse by title

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 85 items :

  • European Politics and Policy x
  • Climate Change x
Clear All
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 3 critically examines the rise of purported ‘offshoot’ groups the Animal Rights Militia, Justice Department and Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty and their campaigns to end animal cruelty by targeting humans. The final section applies the previously outlined prevailing theories of radical group and individual evolution, and charts the ALF’s (and their purported offshoots) members’ growth from activists to militants to terrorists willing to commit large-scale arson and attacks on humans to further their goals to end animal suffering.
This content is available to you

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 1 scrutinizes the case study of the primary ‘ecoterrorist’ group protecting animals: the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). It sets out a brief history of animal welfare groups, the Hunt Saboteur protest group and the radical environmental group Band of Mercy that predated the ALF, as well as a biography of the group’s charismatic leader Ronnie Lee. The chapter describes the birth of the ALF both in the UK and the USA. It goes on to critically analyse both the ALF’s underlying philosophy and the development of a radical animal rights philosophy that underpinned ALF actions.
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

The Conclusion draws together the case studies and the theoretical analysis to recapitulate the central findings as to whether we can observe a process in the examined groups from activist to militant to terrorist. In particular, we will determine whether there are distinctive radicalization patterns within particular groups, particular movements and tendencies (environmental or animal rights), and country-specific trends. In addition it addresses other relevant questions about these groups: are the examined groups counterproductive to the aims of the broader environmental movement or a necessary ‘evil’ that enables more moderate groups to have success? Have the examined radical environmental groups flourished or grown weaker over time and what factors account for their relative strengths or weaknesses? Lastly, have they developed into a mass movement to realize their political goal of changing how humans interact with the environment?
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 4 provides a critical examination of the group Earth First!, focusing on key proponents, its history, the conditions that brought it about and its philosophy. It examines the role played by Edward Abbey and the impact of his 1975 novel The Monkey Wrench Gang on radical environmentalism. It also examines the birth of Earth First!, their campaigns and the role played by Dave Foreman in creating this group dedicated to protecting the biosphere. It analyses the group’s strategies and tactics, operating philosophy, campaigns and seeks to explain its demise as a functioning group and why it never progressed towards more radical violent action.
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 5 examines the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) and charts its development of a philosophy of property violence, or ecotage, as opposed to violence against humans. The group’s evolution, as well as distinction, from the group it sprang from, Earth First! is also critically evaluated. The strategies, tactics and appeal of the group are critically examined as well as its successes and failures. The chapter evaluates how ELF has spread from its beginnings in England in 1992 to having autonomous cells globally. It examines this cell structure with their emphasis, in the case of ELF, on ‘affinity groups’, which are usually autonomous and self-funded, and asks if they can be considered examples of leaderless resistance. This chapter also provides a history of the various militant acts carried out by the ELF. It will consider whether these groups are vigilantes, militants or terrorists. Lastly it questions how effective the ELF has been in achieving its stated goals. It further examines the group’s evolution using prevailing radicalization theories and considers whether, given their actions, they should be considered terrorists or militants.
You do not have access to this content

From Environmental Action to Ecoterrorism?

Towards a Process Theory of Environmental and Animal Rights Oriented Political Violence

Gerald Nagtzaam

This book scrutinizes the growth of the ‘eco-terrorism’ movement operating on a global scale, focusing on the main groups and their more radical offshoots, both historically and those currently active. These include Earth First!, the Earth Liberation Front, the Animal Liberation Front and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. It critically examines how these groups form and how they have evolved, their key personnel, their strategies and tactics, principles, motivating philosophies and attitudes to violence. Specifically, the book seeks to understand whether such groups inevitably evolve from activists to militants to terrorists, as the literature suggests. Lastly, it considers the future of such groups, asking whether they will become more prominent as more people become ecologically aware and as global environmental conditions deteriorate, or whether such groups have peaked as a force for environmental change.
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 6 sets out to explore the history and evolution of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS). It details the background of the group’s totemic leader Paul Watson and his childhood influences that led him to want to work to save oceanic creatures. It describes his oft-times fiery relationship with the environmental non-governmental organization Greenpeace and Watson’s rancorous exit from that organization. It then critically examines the formation of Earthforce, the stillborn antecedent group to the SSCS, and the creation in 1977 of the SSCS. It goes on to critically analyse the group’s ethos; its attraction to its members, its organizational structure, strategy and tactics; and its use of diplomacy, global media and militant direct action to achieve its goals. It further examines the SSCS’s attitude to violence carried out in the service of its mission and its distinction between violence against humans and property damage, which the group argues should not be considered a violent act.
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 7 provides a history of the various militant acts done by the SSCS since its inception. It focuses in particular on the ongoing annual confrontation between the SSCS and Japanese whalers in Antarctic waters. It further asks how effective the SSCS have been in their stated goals to end Japanese whaling and whether the methods are counterproductive to their stated goals. The chapter also critically examines the recent domestic state attempts to charge Watson and the SSCS for their actions. It concludes by looking at the arrest of the group’s totemic leader and examining the implications for future campaigns. Lastly, the chapter looks at the opponents of the SSCS, in particular the Japanese government, and their labelling of the group as ‘pirates’ (a label the group wears proudly) and/or vigilantes or terrorists.
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 2 focuses on the ALF’s organizational structure and financing, the reasons people have joined the group, its relationship with mainstream environmental groups and the strategy and tactics utilized to attempt to achieve its goals. The chapter also provides a history of the actions carried out by the ALF. It further critically examines the ALF’s attitude to political violence and explores the reasons why it has proven to be the most violent of the ‘ecoterrorist’ groups, willing to proffer physical violence against those it designated an enemy. It provides a history of their campaigns and actions undertaken.
You do not have access to this content

Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 8 analyses the various claims to legitimacy made by the SSCS. It demonstrates how the unwieldiness of modern international oceanic law has enabled the Sea Shepherds to evade legal punishment for their actions. It considers how successful the SSCS has been and whether such success will continue on in the future and, finally, the chapter considers the previously examined radicalization theories, and whether the SSCS is an ecoterrorist group or should be better understood as a vigilante group willing to use political violence to achieve its goals.