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Pierre Bocquillon and Aurélien Evrard

In the 2000s France adopted strong policies to support the development of renewable energies; in particular, a Feed-In Tariff system for renewable electricity as well as a biofuels obligation. Yet, in the power sector, it has failed to set in motion the large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies and repeatedly fell short of its European commitments. The development of renewable electricity has been hampered by the structural, institutional and ideological dominance of a centralized energy model based on nuclear energy. Biofuels support policies have been more successful, mainly because of the importance of the domestic agricultural sector, establishing the country as a European leader. European renewable and biofuel policies have impacted on French domestic policies, although not necessarily in a strictly top-down fashion and often in indirect ways. This chapter explores the role of top-down, bottom-up and horizontal dynamics of Europeanization in the evolution of French renewable energy policies. Through an actor-centred political sociology approach, the authors look at the way domestic actors have strived to shape, adapted to and strategically used policy developments at the European level. This approach enables them to assess in a more nuanced manner the differential impact – and limits – of the Europeanization of French renewable electricity and biofuel policies. Keywords: biofuels policy, Europeanization, France, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy, usages of Europe

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Helge Jörgens, Eva Öller and Israel Solorio

In the second half of the 2010s, the transformation of the energy systems of the European Union (EU) and its member states towards a greater incorporation of renewable energy sources (RES) has come to a crossroads. While the 1990s and most of the 2000s witnessed a rapid increase in policies and programmes aimed to promote the production and consumption of energy from RES, and an equally rapid growth of the share of RES in national and European energy mixes, since the late 2000s the speed of transformation has slowed down considerably and instances of policy dismantling are becoming more frequent. Drawing on the rich empirical and analytical background of the book’s country studies, this concluding chapter adopts a comparative perspective in order to identify more general patterns of Europeanization and policy change in the renewable energy policy domain over the past decades. Focusing on the development and implementation of major renewable energy directives in the electricity and biofuels domains, the chapter sheds light on the complex patterns of renewable energy governance in the European Union, paying particular attention to the processes of bottom-up, top-down and horizontal Europeanization, as well the domestic drivers of (and obstacles to) transformative policy change. The empirically rich comparative analysis furthers our understanding of the structural and practical barriers that a RES-based energy transition in Europe and abroad is currently facing and sheds light on strategies and best practices for future renewable energy policy in the European multilevel polity. Keywords: biofuels policy, bottom-up Europeanization, horizontal Europeanization, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy, top-down Europeanization

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Helene Dyrhauge

Denmark was one of the first countries to invest in renewable energy sources (RES), and its renewable energy policies were a direct response to the 1970s oil crisis. Consequently, the level of RES in Denmark is higher than in many other European Union (EU) member states. Danish environmental leadership is closely connected to the development of the Danish windmill sector, which has become an important export industry. Whilst EU climate and energy policies are important, the main influences on Danish renewable energies policies come from domestic actors, where specific advocacy coalitions and policy entrepreneurs have been influential in the development of Danish renewable energies policies, acting as both brakes and pushers for high climate standards. Thus, EU climate and renewable energy policies have not been the main drivers for Denmark; instead, Danish environmental leadership originates from domestic advocacy coalitions and individual politicians. Keywords: biofuels policy, Denmark, Europeanization, environmental leader, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy

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Helge Jörgens and Israel Solorio

Chapter 1 presents the analytical framework used throughout the book to study how renewable energy policies in the EU member states emerged and have changed throughout the past three decades. In order to study renewable energy policymaking in the European Union (EU) and its member states and to untangle the complex policy processes that surround it, the authors draw on the Europeanization framework as their principal analytical tool. Adopting a Europeanization perspective allows emphasis to be put not only on the domestic drivers of national policy change, but also on the (sometimes neglected) role of the EU in renewable energy sources promotion. It also directs the analytical focus to the interactive nature of EU policymaking, characterized by an interdependent mix of uploading, downloading and cross-loading of policies and programmes between the European and the national levels and across EU member states. In order to adequately account for the multiplicity of factors that drive policy change in the European multi-level polity, the authors distinguish between three types of Europeanization – bottom-up, top-down, and horizontal – all of which prove to be relevant in some countries or at some point in time. By explicitly adding a horizontal dimension, the analytical framework goes beyond traditional concepts of Europeanization as a two-way process where member state governments either shape European policy outcomes (bottom-up Europeanization) or adapt to them (top-down Europeanization). Keywords: bottom-up Europeanization, Europeanization, horizontal Europeanization, policy diffusion, renewable energy policy, top-down Europeanization

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Israel Solorio and Pierre Bocquillon

The European Union’s (EU) renewable energy policy has been in the making for decades. Its early history consisted of small and incremental steps dating back to the 1970s. From the late 1990s onwards, however, in the wake of the single market agenda and the establishment of an international climate change regime, more significant policy developments were put into motion. This chapter retraces the evolution of EU renewable energy policy, from limited sectorial attempts to promote renewable energy sources (RES) to the creation of one of the most comprehensive programmes for supporting RES development worldwide. It focuses on the historical evolution of the European governance structures for RES promotion, including both the electricity (RES-E) and transport (RES-T) sectors, following a chronological approach. Special attention is paid to the tension between attempts to centralize renewable energy governance at the EU level and the preferences of several member states for a flexible framework that allows for a wide range of national support policies. The chapter argues that, although the 2009 renewable energy directive (RED) represented a leap forward in terms of the Europeanization of national renewable energy policies, centralization has been only partial and has not gone unchallenged, as shown by the debates on the 2030 RES targets and the subsequent revision of the RED. Keywords: biofuels policy, energy policy, European Union, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy

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Simona Davidescu

The perception of Romania as a ‘laggard’ European Union member state in environmental policy implementation was challenged by recent developments in the renewable energy sources (RES) sector, as the country had one of the most generous RES support schemes in Europe and reached its 2020 RES targets as early as 2014. However, the significant and sudden growth of investment in RES for electricity (RES-E) was uneven across subsectors and there were significant structural, procedural and practical barriers that threatened the sustainability of policy implementation, indicative of ‘shallow Europeanization’. Furthermore, electricity price increases and the effects of the economic crisis in terms of lower levels of consumption and job losses have provided the backdrop for resistance to and reform of the RES support scheme after 2013. Despite promoting ‘biomass’ as a government priority, mainly for heating and RES-E, compliance with RES for transport (RES-T) was lagging behind agreed targets. This discrepancy was linked to legacies of the communist and early transition periods, and wider processes of transformation (including liberalization, restructuring and land restitution). While RES-E promotion had highlighted the political, institutional and physical barriers to implementation, the promotion of RES-T added to these structural limits, which were too costly to address in the short term. Keywords: biofuels policy, Europeanization, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy, Romania, shallow Europeanization

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Lorenzo Di Lucia

Transport biofuels have been intensively promoted by the European Union (EU) in the past decade. Increased production and consumption of these fuels started an ongoing debate about the potential risks for environmental quality, food security and the well-being of local communities. Critics argue that without a system to ensure sustainable production of biofuels within and outside the EU, policy support should be discontinued. A key point of contention is the capacity of the EU to ensure that policy support in the EU does not translate into unsustainable biofuels production in geographically distant regions. The aim of this chapter is to explore the influence of the EU on the development of the biofuels sector in developing countries. Mozambique, a least-developed country with weak institutional frameworks for environmental and social protection, and high potentials for large-scale biofuels production and export, was selected as an empirical case study. The analysis focuses on: (1) the governance mechanisms employed by the EU to influence the biofuels sector in Mozambique; and (2) the results of the EU governance in terms of rules and values adoption and application in Mozambique. The findings show that in the case of Mozambique the EU employed primarily market governance, while hierarchical and network modes of governance were largely overlooked. The most evident outcome of this governance strategy can be seen in the level of adoption of EU rules and values into Mozambican policies, especially concerning greenhouse gas emissions. Practical application of EU rules and values was, however, negligible. The chapter concludes by suggesting a more coordinated use of the available modes of external governance. Keywords: biofuels policy, Europeanization, external EU governance, food security, Mozambique, renewable energy policy

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Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

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Thomas Hoppe and Ellen van Bueren

The Netherlands has long cherished its reputation of compliance with European Union (EU) policies and directives, often playing an initiating role. However, the progressive environmental policies of the 1990s were replaced by restrictive policies of right-wing government coalitions, which came into power after 2001, and by 2013 the Netherlands had become a laggard in environmental policy. This chapter reflects on how this occurred, set against Europeanization processes. The main research question is: ‘How did Europeanization processes shape the development of Dutch renewable energy policy, and how did this in turn affect EU renewable energy policymaking?’ The authors answer this research question by analysing two case studies: (1) renewable sources for electricity (RES-E); and (2) biofuels. Their findings reveal that RES-E and biofuels were not prioritized in Dutch energy policies. Moreover, policies to support the two have been far from consistent. In both the RES-E and biofuel cases, all three forms of Europeanization were observed, although some (top-down and bottom-up Europeanization) were more commonly encountered than others (horizontal Europeanization). Regarding top-down Europeanization, national implementation of the directives led to amendments of national regulatory frameworks and the development of support schemes. Horizontal Europeanization occurred more explicitly in the RES-E case than the biofuels case. Bottom-up Europeanization took place in two ways. Firstly, the Netherlands pushed for and succeeded in ‘uploading’ policies and standards to the EU. Secondly, the Netherlands tried and succeeded in lowering targets that had been allocated to the country by the EU. Keywords: biofuels policy, Europeanization, Netherlands, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy

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Maria Rosaria Di Nucci and Daniele Russolillo

The Europeanization of Italian energy policy, especially concerning renewable energy policy, is a rather unexplored field. The stream of literature addressing the Italian case concerning renewable energy sources (RES) focused on the efficiency of supporting instruments, but barely on the European Union (EU) impact on national energy politics and policies. This chapter attempts to fill this gap. It focuses on the policy and regulatory framework and incentives in the fields of RES for electricity (RES-E) and RES for transport (RES-T) in Italy, and analyses the changes in national policy induced by Europeanization processes (both top-down and horizontal). The authors claim that the ‘goodness of fit’ hypothesis is only in parts suitable to comprehend the developments in the RES-E and RES-T policy, and that the causes for absence of change (as in the case of biofuels) result from actors’ preferences rather than from the incapability of structures to adjust. The case of Italy seems to underline that EU renewable energy policy can provide a model around which to redesign a domestic policy, but that for this to take place, major actors able to exploit adaptational pressures or willing to learn from best cases are necessary. The EU target for Italy sets the objective of covering 17 per cent of total energy demand from RES by 2020. This target was met in 2014 in spite of a discontinuous, incoherent energy, technology and industrial policy. Does such an achievement demonstrate that it is possible to attain European agreed targets even without attempting to upload policies linked to national policy preferences or by transposing EU legislation in a timely way? The authors try to get to the bottom of these questions and analyse how and why this result was attainable. Keywords: biofuels policy, Europeanization, Italy, renewable electricity policy, renewable energy policy, regulation