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Romain Wacziarg

This compelling Literature Review Article discusses the major literary contributions to the economic analysis of the consequences of trade liberalization on growth, productivity, labor market outcomes and economic inequality. Examining the classical theories that stress gains from trade stemming from comparative advantage, the review also analyses more recent theories of imperfect competition, where any potential gains from trade can stem from competitive effects or the international transmission of knowledge. Empirical contributions provide evidence regarding the explanatory power of these various theories, including work on the effects of trade openness on economic growth, wages, and income inequality, as well as evidence on the effects of trade on firm productivity, entry and exit. This Research Review will be an invaluable research resource for academics, practitioners and those drawn to this fascinating topic.
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Axel Marx and Jan Wouters

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Romain Wacziarg

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Romain Wacziarg

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Axel Marx and Jan Wouters

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Axel Marx and Jan Wouters

Global governance emerged as a concept more than two decades ago. Despite its relevance to key processes underlying the major public policy questions of our age, the contours of 'global governance' remain contested and elusive. This Research Review seeks to clarify key trends and challenges in global governance by bringing together the leading scholarship on its different forms. The Literature Review Article discusses key issues in relation to global governance institutions: democracy, legitimacy, accountability, fragmentation, effectiveness and dispute settlement.
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Axel Marx and Jan Wouters

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Romain Wacziarg

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Xianwei Zhang and Xiequn Zhu

Due to the enormous extent of the e-commerce market in China, the problem of online patent rights infringement has become more severe and has received more attention from Chinese legislators. Therefore, in the latest Draft Patent Law Amendment, the ‘notice and takedown’ rule originally used in copyright law has now been transplanted into patent law to tackle online patent infringement issues. In our view, because there is a clear distinction between infringement of patent right and infringement of copyright, the notice and takedown rule cannot simply be transplanted without creating an unnecessary burden on internet service providers. Based on an evaluation of court rulings of the People's Republic of China, this article will provide recommendations for improving the application of the rule.

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Chris Dent

Inventions have been protected, in England, by patents since the sixteenth century. The patent system has undergone significant change since that time – in the nineteenth century, major legislative reforms were undertaken in the shadow of an abolitionist movement; and in the twentieth century, the system began to accommodate radical technological developments. This research applies insights from evolutionary theory, allowing a focus on the range of parties involved in the system and an acknowledgement of how these parties have changed as the system and society have developed.