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Emiliano Brancaccio, Andrea Califano and Fabiana De Cristofaro

Liberalization policies of international movements of capital and labour have represented a crucial feature of the so-called ‘globalization’ era. More recently, however, several restrictions on migratory movements have been adopted to face the alleged negative effects of immigration. On the contrary, free movement of capital has almost always been preserved. This paper aims to verify whether this current framework of international economic policy can be justified in economic terms. We propose an unprecedented direct comparison between the macroeconomic and distributive impacts of ‘extreme’ episodes of net capital outflows and net migrant inflows in OECD countries between 1970 and 2017. Applying a fixed-effects approach and an event-study approach, we show that GDP growth and functional income distribution have null or even positive statistical relationships with immigration, while they have largely negative statistical relationships with capital flights. More specifically, extreme migrant inflows are not related or in some cases are positively related to real GDP growth, real GDP per capita growth and the wage share, while extreme capital outflows are negatively related to real GDP growth and real GDP per capita growth. These results contrast with current policy agendas and seem to suggest that controls should concern capital movements rather than migratory flows of people.

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Pierre-Marie Dupuy

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Pierre-Marie Dupuy

International custom “as evidence of a general practice accepted as law”, is considered one of the two main sources of international law as it primarily derives from the conduct of sovereign States, but is also closely connected with the role of the international judge when identifying the applicable customary rule, a function it shares with the bodies in charge of its codification (and progressive development), starting with the International Law Commission. Though mainly considered to be general international law, international custom has a complex relationship with many specific fields of law and specific regions of the world. The editor provides comprehensive research published in the last seven decades, invaluable to everyone interested in the field of customary international law.
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Pierre-Marie Dupuy

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Pierre-Marie Dupuy

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Hayleigh Bosher

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is evidentially growing steadily across all sectors and industries. This includes in the creation and development of music, which raises some interesting copyright questions about authorship, ownership and infringement. This chapter will look at the impact of AI on these principles of copyright in the context of music creativity.

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Hayleigh Bosher

Following on from the previous chapter which considered the impact of artificial intelligence technology on copyright and the music industry, this chapter considers another type of technological develop; blockchain. This chapter discusses the use of blockchain technology in copyright registrations, licence and payments, and copyright enforcement.

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Harry J. Holzer

This chapter reviews recent empirical evidence on skill-building among low-income youth and adults in the United States. It focuses on skills and credentials that are well-rewarded in the labor market and the different means of attaining them. It reviews benefits and limitations of college attendance for disadvantaged youth and adults. It also considers alternatives to higher education (high-quality career and technical education, models of work-based learning and sectoral training for youth or adults. A caveat is that good post-secondary education and workforce programs will mostly not make up for poor K-12 academic preparation. The need for other policies to strengthen early education outcomes, or to provide incentives to and assist workers whose skills will remain very poor, remains in effect.

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Luigi Ceccarini

This chapter starts discussing approaches regarding well-known arguments like ‘partisan dealignment’ and ‘de-freezing’ process of traditional socio-political cleavages within a scenario marked by ‘cognitive mobilization’ and new forms of engagement, which appear to be nowadays more fragmented, creative, fostered by post-bureaucratic bodies and develop in different political arenas (like the sub-political ones). This is a basic point since it drags the rise of a sort of new (ideal)type of citizen: the critical and monitorial one. It is then a frame much different from the one of only few decades before that has to be considered in the analysis of the relationship between society and politics in our time.