This chapter explores wrath in consumers’ collective opposition of wind power by employing rhetoric analysis revealing the explicit verbal forms of wrath. Through a rhetorical lens, the chapter analyzes a case in which resistance succeeded in putting an end to the development of a wind power park in a rural area in Finland. The chapter advances knowledge on how wrath, as a moral emotion of injustice, is expressed in public. The findings show how wrath underlies the ways in which activists try to influence their adversaries as well as to mobilize support among consumer allies. In particular, wrath is expressed through three rhetorical strategies: the morality, the evidence, and the victimization rhetorics. Wrath is visible in “ethos appeals,” but is also used as a resource in framing arguments of more rational as well as emotional characters. Overall, the findings suggest that wrath plays an important role in influencing and mobilizing consumer resistance.
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Catharina von Koskull, Petra Berg and Johanna Gummerus
Bruce E. Kaufman and Young-Myon Lee
This chapter explains the history, performance, and assessment of works councils in Korea. Works councils were mandated by law in 1963 as an instrument of the government to evade militant unions. Currently, all private-sector business organizations with at least 30 workers must operate a works council. The consequences of works councils in Korea is yet undetermined. Labor unions in Korea have consistently criticized works councils as being puppets of employers. But survey-based analysis demonstrates that works councils play a pseudo wage bargaining role similar to the role played by unions in collective bargaining, despite not having the legal right to do so. Researchers have shown that works councils are a complement, not substitute for labor unions. Considering the decades-old downward trend in union density and a negative shift in workers’ attitudes towards collective representation, works councils may work to represent workers’ interests in the increasing number of non-union workplaces in Korea.
Yu Ha Cheung and Alicia S. M. Leung
Organisations have been increasingly aware of the importance of promoting environmental sustainability as one means of fulfilling a role in corporate social responsibility. Using data from 194 Hong Kong managerial and professional employees collected through two waves of online survey, we examined the impact of three proximal factors, autonomy at work, management involvement, and intrinsic motivation on workplace green behaviour (i.e., champion green behaviour, conventional green behaviour, paper use and electricity use). Our results showed that (1) employees’ intrinsic motivation and management expectations of acting green were significant predictors of workplace green behaviour; (2) autonomy at work was related only to champion green behaviour; and (3) the presence of committees or designated personnel on promoting green initiative was not related to employees’ workplace green behaviour.
Niamh Murtagh, Birgitta Gatersleben and David Uzzell
Energy consumption in offices is particularly important amongst the environmentally impacting activities of office workers. Almost 70 per cent of this consumption is electricity, with information and computing technologies amongst the highest uses. In this chapter, we explore the question of whether individual energy feedback can influence behaviour. Research evidence on feedback in the home is reviewed but despite extensive research, the mix of approaches, small sample sizes and absence of control groups, baseline usage and inferential statistical analysis pose a challenge to conclusive findings – published studies report wide variation. In the workplace, approaches, interventions and outcomes have also been varied. A common conclusion of such studies is that interventions in the workplace can contribute to behaviour change and reduction in energy consumption and, in particular, that feedback can be an effective component of intervention. However, the chapter concludes that, despite a rapidly growing empirical base, definitive findings from the workplace remain elusive. The psychological mechanisms by which feedback may work are still unknown. Information deficit alone is insufficient as an explanation. The most promising constructs to explore further are motivation and meaning, awareness (even though we know that raised awareness in itself does not necessarily result in changed behaviour) and self-efficacy. Behaviour change requires motivation beyond the provision of information. Furthermore, the time for feedback aimed simply at energy reduction is gone. As economies shift towards lower carbon, the issue is no longer one of less energy use but shifting energy use to renewable sources alongside reducing waste. Energy at work is consumed in a collective endeavour and workers should be involved in energy-saving strategies.
This chapter details the legal framework, precedents and judicial direction of worker rights and enforcement in Korea. Korean labor and union law was established in 1953, and the labor law system covers three distinct areas: the contractual relationship between individual workers and employers; the process and rights for organizing and dissolving labor unions and their operating principles; and the legal system related to the operation of labor-management councils within the workplace. Despite a strong legal framework in many dimensions such as dismissal protections, worker rights are eroded through restrictions on industrial action, cultural practice, lack of enforcement, and the inconsistency and capriciousness of judicial rulings.
Heiwon Kwon and Virginia L. Doellgast
This chapter assesses the degree of gender inequality in Korea based on available statistics concerning gender employment and wage gaps. Gender inequality has persisted and has become durable over the last decade. Although women’s economic activity and labor force participation have increased, the gender gap remains strikingly wide in terms of both the employment rate and wages. This is due to three factors. First, Korea’s long-working-hours culture and breadwinner ideology unduly burden women with caregiving, an unsustainable role for the employed. Second, women are concentrated in low-wage, insecure, contingent employment with low protection and no representation as a result of labor flexibilization policies from the 1990s. Finally, the feminization of part-time low-quality work will continue to hinder women’s full integration into the labor market. We conclude with a discussion of the implication of our findings for policies that seek to better integrate work and family lives.
The Anthropocene brings with it a risk of environmental disasters at scales not previously experienced. This chapter argues that disasters caused or made worse by climate change are appropriately addressed under the rubric of international climate law rather than global disaster policy. A turn to generic disaster risk reduction in response to the risks of climate disasters in the Anthropocene is no substitute for the urgent task of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in order to meet the objectives of the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Instruments such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, as important as they are, can offer only wishful thinking when it comes to the governance of environmental disasters in the Anthropocene.
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
In the previous chapter, we began to address ‘alternative’ means of performance evaluation and performance management. In this chapter, we anchor those descriptions into the context of current corporate realities and begin to consider the ramifications. This takes the shape of a debate about the future of performance appraisal that has heated up to major proportions in the last few years. We follow the major arguments of those in favor of abolishing traditional rating scales altogether – or at least minimizing their use or ‘bundling’ them with other evaluation (or performance management) techniques – versus those in favor of maintaining their use, improving their efficacy, and applying the scales in a more communicative, flexible, fair, and trusting corporate environment. The discussions are garnered from the Cappelli and Tavis in the Harvard Business Review (2016).
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
Having largely discussed the classical methods of performance appraisal systems (PASs) and ways in which they should be approached in order to achieve the highest levels of efficacy, we now turn to alternative approaches to performance appraisal that may replace or complement the relatively long-standing procedures or at least compensate for some of the various criticisms directed at these traditional performance appraisal formats and methods. In this chapter, we begin to introduce several of these objections in a systematic fashion and present the reader with a brief catalogue of some of the more widely employed alternatives to performance appraisal (PA) that have found their way into organizations in the current marketplace. Many of these alternative strategies (including performance management strategies) reflect the changing circumstances in the workplace and in technology and are geared to creating a more democratic climate of change than was apparent in previous years. In taking a brief look at some of these alternative methodologies we widen the scope of our overall discussion. In doing so, we distinguish globally between those approaches that focus on company goals, strategy, and bottom-line productivity that tend to match performance against set targets versus appraisal methods based on the view that, in a changing business world, employee appraisal must be immediate, ongoing and looking to the future, rather than inducing workers to be accountable for the past. We also examine approaches to performance appraisal that employ various, alternative sources of observation, including self-appraisal, peers, and subordinates, procedures that certainly help to overcome rater bias, if not intrinsically raising new challenges. Further we elaborate on the use of technology (a subject also treated in Chapter 7) – computerization, automation, media, and simulations – and assessment centers as tools that are increasingly helpful in tracking employee performance in situations where this may have been difficult in the past. And, last, we turn to performance management (PM), both as the emerging global approach to enhancing effectiveness and productivity in the workplace and by way of introduction to emerging theory and research in what has been described as firm-level performance (DeNisi and Smith, 2014).
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
It stands to reason that appraisers set to observe and evaluate employees using performance appraisal techniques will improve their performance through adequate and appropriate training. The challenges, however, we recall, include overcoming rater errors, feelings of discomfort with performance appraisal (PA), and the possibility of biases entering into the evaluation process due to preconceived perceptions and personal (political) agendas. Notably, the assumption underlying the training is that there is real transferability from the training class to the real situation at the organization. Moreover, if given a clear idea of what the performance dimensions mean and what different performance levels look like, raters will be more likely to show (more) agreement in their evaluations. In this chapter then, in addition to discussing these basic assumptions, we introduce the concept of frame-of-reference training (see also Chapter 13), designed basically to ensure that raters adopt a common frame of reference regarding target performance dimensions and performance levels. Additionally, we take a look at raters’ motivations as a source of rater error. Despite cynicism regarding the efficacy of training and the relative dearth of research, Tziner (2002) among others, upholds its virtues. To this end, the chapter includes a discussion of the content and methodology of training programs, a sample of a successful training model, and a brief review of current trends in rater training programs.