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Edited by David Billis and Colin Rochester

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Brad Sherman and Susannah Chapman

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Anna Grear

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Aharon Kellerman

This chapter is devoted to the global mobility of individuals, mainly through tourism. It begins with a review of the history of the airline industry, culminating with the emergence of low-cost airlines, on the one hand, and airline hubs and huge airports, on the other. These two trends are interpreted as being simultaneously facilitators and consequences of the vast growth in the global movement of people. The chapter further outlines the general features of the global air transport system, and it discusses the factors, processes and patterns for airport development, the internal structure of airports, international airports and their cities, and airline networks and systems. The chapter then moves to a comparative discussion of the global positionalities of airports and container ports, thus connecting and comparing maritime ports and airports. The final dimension, elaborated in this chapter, is the environmental effects of airports.

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Lars Fuglsang and Jørn Kjølseth Møller

In this chapter we develop a framework for analysing the challenge of dealing with innovation in hybrid public services. The main objective of the chapter is to analyse how hybridity can lead to innovation. Hybrid organisations are defined by the literature as organisations that combine multiple organisational identities and forms (Battilana and Lee, 2014), multiple institutional logics (Jay, 2013; Battilana and Lee, 2014) or sector principles (Billis, 2010). For the purpose of this chapter we define hybrid organisations as organisations that combine two or more institutional logics. An institutional logic is a socially constructed pattern of cultural symbols and material practices by which individuals and organisations provide meaning to their daily activity (Thornton et al., 2012, p. 2). For organisations, logics may translate into organisational ‘principles’ (Billis, 2010) or rules of the game. In this chapter we use logics and principles as almost interchangeable concepts but for us the overarching phenomenon is logics. The example of hybridity we analyse in this chapter is the growing ‘servitisation’ of public services. Servitisation we understand as a new institutional logic that leads public services to emphasise user-centric innovation approaches. Servitisation and the user-centric logic represent a move towards market sector principles and therefore an increase in sector hybridity.

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Benjamin Huybrechts, Julie Rijpens, Aurélie Soetens and Helen Haugh

Hybrid organisations are ‘organizations that combine institutional logics in unprecedented ways’ (Battilana and Dorado, 2010, p. 1419; Scott, 2001); they thus bring together logics from different, and often conflicting, fields into a singular organisational form. Social enterprises, for example, are typical hybrids that combine economic, social and environmental goals (Battilana and Lee, 2014; Billis, 2010; Doherty et al., 2014) and have been found to operate successfully in diverse sectors such as microfinance (Battilana and Dorado, 2010), fair trade (Huybrechts, 2012) and work integration (Pache and Santos, 2013). Although exploiting business methods to address social or environmental problems might suggest an organisational model that combines the best of both worlds, categorical confusion has been found to limit an organisation’s access to resources and negatively impact upon long-term survival (Tracey et al., 2011). Hybridity in organisations is not a new phenomenon (Billis, 2010), but interest in innovative organisational models that facilitate the achievement of double, or triple, bottom lines has recently flourished in response to global sustainability challenges (Hoffman et al., 2012). Hybrid organisations, however, face legitimacy challenges in that they are: (1) difficult to categorise within established organisational taxonomies (Aldrich and Fiol, 1994; Suchman, 1995); and (2) held to account to multiple institutional demands by audiences that use different and possibly contradictory legitimation criteria (Kraatz and Block, 2008). In turn the credibility of their claims of commitment to different sets of standards may be deemed to be unconvincing. Securing the conferment of legitimacy from stakeholders is therefore an important challenge facing hybrid organisations. Previous research, however, has not investigated the activities required to build legitimacy when an organisational form bridges two or more institutional categories.

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Johan Gärde

The organisational life of faith communities and religious congregations is changing in post-secular environments with new interactions, opportunities for collaboration and social contracts between the public and private sectors and civil society organisations (secular and religious). Religious communities with shrinking congregations and faithbased organisations (FBOs) in a post-secular environment are developing strategies for networking and collaboration with the public and private sectors. They are utilising a new discourse of solidarity and inclusion, which also attracts a larger public that goes beyond the shrinking constituencies of their own members. Collaboration has been accompanied by the growth of hybridity and hybrid organisations. Billis (2010) suggests that this occurs when an organisation from one sector, for example the civil society/third sector, adopts the different approaches and principles of the public and/or the private sector. As this chapter will show, hybrid organisational forms can bring with them the prospect of answers to difficult problems of communities and welfare. But they can also present their own inherent problems when the different principles become uncomfortable partners. I shall shortly illustrate this in a personal example.

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Aharon Kellerman

The chapter begins with a summary of all the chapters. It then moves to the presentation of speculations on the future leadership of global mobilities. China seems to emerge as the new leading core for global mobilities, within the wider leading continental core of Asia-Pacific. China’s seniority was noted in the previous chapters for the mobilities of commodities and people, along with its emerging leadership for the mobilities of finance and technology. It seems that China’s governmental controlling is and will be the Chinese ‘flavor’ for the twenty-first-century wave of globalization, and this goes hand in hand with the desire of China for leadership in global mobilities. Chinese direct governmental involvement may constitute a kind of ‘big brother’ supervision for some mobilities, prevailing side by side with an additional, indirect and sometimes merely potential Chinese surveillance and control for other mobilities.

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Gabriela Vaceková, Hana Lipovská and Jana Soukopová

The theoretical relevance and practical importance of the development of hybrid organisations around the world has been experienced, among others, by the post-communist economies. The trend towards emerging hybridisation in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has grown significantly in recent years. The process of spanning sectoral boundaries (Billis, 2010; Dees and Anderson, 2003; Laville and Nyssens, 2001) is ‘now perhaps accelerating’ (Donnelly-Cox, 2015), especially with the development of social enterprises that seem to transcend sectors (Dees and Anderson, 2003). To date, however, we lack the means of reflecting in detail on the specific nature of hybridity in a transitional context as well as on the kinds of current public debates and policy-making discourses within which it takes place. This chapter intends to try to fill this gap. The chapter does not attempt to do justice to the considerable heterogeneity of transitional economies but focuses on the Czech Republic in an attempt to present a comprehensive picture of the way in which civil society was transformed in this one country. From the early years of the transition from communist rule, public services were seen as being delivered by hybrid organisations operating in the intersection of the market, the civil society and the public sector.

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Aharon Kellerman

This chapter is devoted to the media and channels that have been developed and adopted for information transmission. The four major information media of telephony, radio, television and the Internet lead in the transmission of information in general, and in the international mobility of information in particular. Moreover, the daily and most significant dimension of global mobility for individuals worldwide is their connectivity to media of global communications. This global mobility of individuals is mostly carried out through mobile phones in general, and through smartphones connected to the Internet in particular, along with television as the leading mass medium. The chapter elaborates on the emergence and structure of all of these information media, followed by elaborations on their global spread and functioning, as well as on their transmission infrastructures via satellites and international cables. The order of discussions follows the original historical introduction of the four media.