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Edited by Anja R. Lahikainen, Tiina Mälkiä and Katja Repo
This chapter explores parental mediation as situated practice. Earlier research has demonstrated that parents use different mediation strategies in order to help their children to understand media contents and diminish the negative effects media are believed to have on children. It has been suggested that actively talking with children about media contents is the most effective strategy in preventing unwanted effects. By utilizing conversation analysis, this chapter examines parent–child interaction in television viewing situations. Some 330 minutes of interaction between five-year-olds and their parents were analysed. Four practices of active parental mediation were identified: interpreting the programme, assessing the programme, teaching, and talking about the viewing experience. These practices serve several functions, which are discussed in the light of the moment-to-moment socialization process and parental mediation theory.
This chapter discusses theoretical and methodological understandings when undertaking research that explores family interactions in relation to digital media use and issues, and opportunities and constraints for technological engagement, socialization and participation in family life. Specific attention is directed to those studies that explore children’s participation in digital technologies through the theoretical lenses of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. These approaches examine in fine detail the participants’ moment-by-moment talk and actions (including multimodal actions) as they engage with each other and with digital media. The chapter explores methodological considerations when investigating family interactions in digital media contexts, and briefly discusses the ethical considerations of undertaking research involving children in private and home contexts, and using video-recording data of family interactions with digital media. The chapter concludes with challenges and opportunities for social interaction research that involve family interactions around digital media.
Eerik Mantere and Sanna Raudaskoski
In this chapter, a video-recorded mundane conversation between a 12-year-old daughter and her mother, who is simultaneously using a smartphone, is analysed in detail. The authors discovered that the overlapping use of a smartphone challenges the common norms of request and response, and in addition produces difficulties in interpretation of the present level of agreement. The authors introduce the term ‘sticky media device’ to define these difficulties and the divided attention between the interlocutor and the device. Attention stuck to the ‘sticky’ smartphone makes responses to the interlocutor slow, hesitant and ambiguous. According to the case analysed, it is challenging for the daughter to ‘unstick’ her mother’s attention from the device, which readily returns to the device, even when the daughter momentarily gains it. This case study raises the question of whether the phenomenon of the sticky media device, by confusing the traditional norms of conversation, can affect the way children learn the common norms of interaction.
Sanna Tiilikainen and Ilkka Arminen
Digitalization, in the form of ubiquitous media and communication technologies at home, is forcing families with children to face an increasing number of choices regarding how they spend time together. The new combinations of people’s embodied presence and digital worlds are altering family interactions and collective family time in the home, including the socialization of children. This chapter investigates the manifestations of these new ways of being together under the social contract the authors call ‘together individually’. According to this contract, joint social time at home is complemented with ICT and digital content by mutual consent. Using selected instances recorded from videotaped family interactions involving the use of ICT at home, the authors analyse the new ways of spending time together individually and the ways in which children are being socialized according to this contract.
It is a common challenge in today’s families that children immerse themselves in media use and their parents try to motivate them to take responsibility for other important obligations. This chapter analyses the variation of the strategies parents and children are able to use when discussing the cessation or continuation of computer use. In order to identify the procedural features of the negotiations, the analysis focuses on one especially challenging negotiation process between a mother and her juvenile child. Both the parent’s and child’s participation are studied. The methodological approach combines the traditions of discourse analysis, frame analysis and conversation analysis. The aim is to examine the interaction progression as it unfolds turn by turn for the participants themselves. In order to analyse the variation in the participants’ strategies, the analysis explicates the positions that participants take and the frameworks they orient towards in the course of the interaction process.
Tiago Brandão and Carolina Bagattolli
Over the last decades, technological innovation became the new mantra in the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) of diverse countries. Aligned with neoliberalism and the ideals of rationalization and bureaucratization, based on the rationality that ‘there is always a best model to follow’, the result has been a range of isomorphic pressures to adopt best practices for national STIP within peripheral countries. This is evident in the core elements of the policy process, with the discourses, main goals, policy mechanisms and legislation being quite similar despite some degree of variation in their formal structures or with regard to the historical background from country to country.
Having learned that users and not only firms contribute to innovation processes, a handful of studies of innovation scholars are directing their attention to ‘outlaw innovation’. Examples are found in computer hacking and file sharing. By comparing this empirical field with one where users circumvent controlled substance acts by inventing ‘legal highs’, the claim is made in the chapter that lawbreaking goes to the heart of what innovation is all about. More precisely, innovation opens up a space outside the constituted order. Conflicts over norms and legislation are drivers in all innovation processes, not only in ‘outlaw innovation’. This leads to the proposition that sociological theories about value conflicts are more apt for understanding innovation processes than theories with more of a consensual bias, such as those prevalent in innovation studies research.
Benoît Godin and Dominique Vinck
The dominant frameworks in terms of rational process and breakthrough are problematic because of what is left out. This book suggests exploring phenomena that may appear irrational and alternative frameworks, and overcoming underlying political ideologies. It invites researchers to develop a research programme on Critical Studies of Innovation and proposes approaches regarding the concepts used, the focus and the phenomena to be studied. The book editors call for new definitions and models for innovation studies.