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Hugo Pinto and Tiago Santos Pereira

The recent economic turbulence was characterized by recessionary dynamics, differentiated problems in specific territories and changes in science, technology and innovation. In this context, the chapter debates the notion of resilience as an adaptive capacity that allows overcoming negative effects of internal and external shocks, and creating growth trajectories in different socio-economic systems. The chapter gives emphasis to the need to delimit the system to be analysed and suggests that a “regional innovation system” is a good candidate to analyse in the study of science, technology and innovation resilience. The text also suggests that the analysis of systemic failures is crucial for a deeper understanding of internal fragilities. The chapter concludes with implications for the resilience of innovation.

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Roberta Comunian and Lauren England

Our understanding of clusters and their evolution and resilience has expanded in the last decades. However, little research has considered the importance of resilience and evolution with specific reference to creative clusters. The chapter aims to connect the emergent literature on resilience and evolutionary perspectives in economic geography with our current knowledge and understanding of creative clusters. Focusing on the craft sector in the UK, the concept of resilience is explored as a conceptual framework to explain and explore the shift from industrial to post-industrial economies. The focus of the chapter is on the resilience of knowledge – and the role of networks in supporting this resilience in the shift between industrial production and creative making.

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Mete Başar Baypınar

Knowledge-intensive sectors are a significant interest both for regional planners and policy makers, as they promise better jobs and economic growth. The industry is characteristically a networked industry of a large number of clusters, where new clusters from emerging countries continuously join. The industrial spatial structure has changed significantly, after almost every major policy change or crisis. While some clusters seem to dominate and persist, others have been lost at the expense of emerging clusters. This study attempts to focus on the software industry in Turkey, where the industry has multiple locations. The resilience of the industry seems to be highly dependent on the changes in the global industrial structure, economic and policy shocks, and state support. Depending on an adaptive resilience perspective and on an extensive literature survey, expert opinions and secondary data, the study finds that mixed peripherality–core properties, creation and retention of variation, knowledge spillovers and anticipatory behaviors of actors in the industry all play critical roles on the resilience of local software clusters. Findings of the study suggest that policy makers should not adopt generic strategies but focus on well-defined targets and unique strategies regarding the life cycle of the subject industry.

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Barbara Martini

Resilience is a very popular word in regional science. Despite that, contributions concerning empirical insights are still limited. The aim of the chapter is to investigate the elements that make an area able to withstand a shock. While literature normally focuses on regions, our chapter focuses on provinces as a source of resilience. Analysis developed at regional level might underestimate the importance of firms’ behaviour that is an important component of resilience. Using the LLS data for Italy, we explore how re-orientation and variety can contribute to create resilience at a provincial level.

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Francisco Javier Ortega-Colomer, Elias Pekkola and Tuomo Heinonen

This study analyses two different geographical settings in a comparative perspective where higher education institutions have played an important role in the modernization of industrial manufacturers. Both settings – the cities of Alcoy (Spain) and Tampere (Finland) – are historically important centres of industry, which showed a down-turn in production, but now aim to be new kinds of innovation hubs in their respective areas. A historical analysis, based on secondary data, is presented as a means to understand the recent resilience and evolution of both regions, in terms of their capacity for facing societal challenges in different periods, such as the growth of inequalities, the creation of new related industries, the globalization process and the financial crisis. An emphasis is placed on the complex relationships among geographical, institutional and individual dynamics that enable the commissioning of heterogeneous innovation processes for resilience. The variety of cooperation and competition linkages identified through qualitative interviewing among local actors in different periods allows us to show practical guidelines with the objective of not inventing the future of the university without being sure lessons have been learned from past successes and failures.

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Philip Cooke

This chapter examines and demonstrates superior regional innovation policy making based on non-linear, lateral and interactive governance. The first section introduces basic concepts of resilience, modeled on its original application in understanding ecosystem behavior under stress, translated into a more suitable economic geography context. There follows a worked, theoretically derived application of resilience theory to qualitative case analyses of responses to resilience shock by regions in Portugal. Here, severe economic crisis was the test of resilience. Innovative adaptability, emphasizing transversality, not particularity, tended to predominate. In conclusion, it is shown how, by exploration of regional and inter-regional “transversality,” these regions avoided “global controller” (EU) advocacy of demonstrably reckless “specialization.” This was achieved in the face of imposed austerity policies from EU and national state in response to the global financial crash of 2008 as it affected the fate of their Regional Innovation Strategies (RIS3).

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Serena Rovai and Nicola Bellini

This chapter focuses on the profile of the new generation of Chinese creative entrepreneurs in the fashion and luxury industry and investigates, in an exploratory way, the mix of endogenous factors that support their growth in the specific context of the city of Beijing. Based on a review of the elements characterising the present stage of development of this industry and on the results of interviews of two emerging brands within a concept store hosting them, the authors argue that in the struggle to affirm the positive value of Chinese creativity, this new breed of entrepreneurs is developing a syncretic mix of Chinese, Asian and Western elements rather than proposing a nationalistic rediscovery of Chineseness. A Beijing effect is also visible, giving evidence of the relationship between art and fashion. Finally, their growth and success appears in tune with the government’s domestic and international policy.

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Michael Keane, Ying Chen and Wen Wen

China’s cultural and creative industries were, and to some extent remain, predicated on material culture, illustrated by the rollout of hundreds of cultural parks and creative clusters. The emphasis within the 13th Five-year Plan is for a digitally connected China. Associated with this is the concept of collaborative innovation. In this chapter the authors question if collaborative innovation will deliver the scale of benefits that the industrial economy has achieved. Certainly, the emphasis on collaboration, efficiency and knowledge is a different blueprint than the industrial clusters of the previous decade, most of which ended up as real estate projects. The chapter looks at so-called incubators, makerspaces and innovation hubs in Hangzhou and Shenzhen. Noting the presence there of commercial digital companies such as Alibaba and Tencent, the authors look at the potential of these spaces to generate digital disruption, and ultimately innovation.

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Roberta Apa, Dina M. Mansour and Silvia Rita Sedita

This chapter explores if creative entrepreneurship in emerging market economies plays a relevant role in the attraction of foreign direct investments (FDI), thus generating the opportunity for economic and social growth. The chapter aims to deepen this important, but still understudied aspect of the economic growth potential of creative industries, using Egypt and the ICT sector as the empirical setting. The analysis of data using the fDi Database and Zephyr on greenfield investments and mergers and acquisitions confirm the relevance of the phenomenon. Moreover, three empirical illustrations allowed the identification of three ideal-types, represented by the three cases selected for the analysis: (1) a start-up that attracted foreign venture capital investments from Silicon Valley (the case of Wuzzuf); (2) a start-up that attracted foreign companies’ investments from Silicon Valley (the case of SysDSoft); (3) a start-up that attracted foreign and local investments from risk capital players (the case of Fawry).

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Creative Industries and Entrepreneurship

Paradigms in Transition from a Global Perspective

Edited by Luciana Lazzeretti and Marilena Vecco

This book investigates the evolving paradigm of creative industries and creative entrepreneurship, and their related economy over time. It explores different stages of the paradigm diffusion in ‘first generation countries’ such as the US, Canada, Australia and Europe, and ‘second generation countries’ in Asia, South America and North Africa in order to identify new trends and their distinctive aspects. By adopting a multidisciplinary approach, the book develops a comprehensive overview of the composite phenomenon of the creative economy and its relationship with entrepreneurship.