Adopting a digital image processing method, specifically the colour histogram method, implemented in the red_green_blue (RGB) colour space segments of digital images, this chapter demonstrates an experiment of colour analysis on a destination’s promotional images, and the results visually display the destination’s colour presentation in a histogram format.
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C. Michael Hall
Fieldwork for tourism research is discussed in the context of the relationship between travel and undertaking fieldwork and their different stages. Seven different types of interrelated spaces of fieldwork are identified: temporal space, physical space, regulatory/political space, ethical space, social space and theoretical/methodological space.
This chapter outlines a specific method for measuring innovation activities in the tourism industry. It is proposed that the Oslo Manual and Community Innovation Survey can be adapted for a firm-level, tourism sector-specific innovation survey. Additionally, analyses of tourism innovation on the tourism network and systems levels are warranted.
Frederic Dimanche and Lidia Andrades
This chapter addresses some of the main methodological issues that researchers need to address when conducting cross-cultural research. It first discusses the relative paucity of such studies in tourism before pointing out the major barriers to valid studies in cross-cultural contexts. The chapter provides methodological guidelines for students and confirmed researchers willing who investigate cross-cultural issues.
Mixed-methods research has been labelled as the ‘third movement’ after the quantitative and qualitative movements in the social sciences. While tourism and hospitality studies are increasingly adopting this approach, researchers continue to mix methods rather than methodologies. This chapter critically evaluates mixed methods research and offers researchers some guidelines on how to design such studies. The method versus paradigm debate surrounding mixed methods is reviewed, and issues of independence, timing and status pertinent to designing mixed methods studies are discussed. The chapter concludes with a pertinent observation that until researchers are trained to understand and appreciate both qualitative and quantitative methods and methodologies, the quality of mixed methods studies in tourism will not improve.
This chapter introduces narrative analysis as a methodology for consideration in tourism research. Narratives are rich sources for understanding and sharing meaning and knowledge, and can be analysed and constructed by researchers interested in the role of tourism experiences in people’s lived experiences and wider societal culture overall.
Jing (Bill) Xu and Mao-Ying Wu
The study in this chapter, using bibliometric analysis, assesses all the tourism journal publications that used netnography in 2005_2015. Netnography is found to be suitable and insightful for studying emerging or niche markets. The role of researchers and the ethical issues required during a netnographic study are specially discussed.
T.S. Stumpf and Christopher B. Califf
This chapter explains the use of meta-theory in the initial and iterative stages of grounded theory method research in principle and practice in hospitality and tourism research. The challenges and opportunities of this approach are also discussed using a grounded investigation of hotel business management in a Pacific Island country.
This chapter promotes the value of the repertory test technique, also referred to as repertory grid analysis and Kelly’s triads, for eliciting attributes that are important to consumers when they are differentiating a competitive set of brands. Underpinned by personal construct theory, the repertory test is ideal for identifying scale items in the development of destination image questionnaires.
The chapter reviews some of the key underlying assumptions of positivism. Researchers in the tourism field tend to argue that positivism is the dominant paradigm, but the voice of the interpretivist is getting louder. The notion of objectivity is critically discussed, with the conclusion that it is more appropriate in tourism research to refer to ‘objectivities’ and ‘subjectivities’. The chapter also outlines some of the major criticisms against positivistic research. However, by no means is the era of positivistic research in tourism over. In fact, with ‘big data’, the discipline is now moving into unchartered territory, and as some researchers have argued, there is little justification for tourism researchers to join the anti-positivism fraction at this time. Tourism research has yet to reach the high degree of ‘formalization’ and ‘technicalization’ as in other fields.