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Fernanda de Paiva Duarte

Autoethnography is a constructivist approach through which the researcher studies her or his own experience alongside that of participants. In this chapter, I demonstrate the value of autoethnography in research projects on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In such projects, there is often a possibility that the investigator may become part of the research as they interact with the participants. In the case reported here, I became an ‘audience’ for the ‘corporate performances’ organized by the employees of a large mining company in Brazil. I use a vignette based on my personal reflections to demonstrate the benefits of the autoethnographic method in this CSR research project.

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Esther Ortiz and José G. Clavel

Today global capital markets require international consensus about disclosure requirements and other barriers to globalization. Business reporting has improved over the years and we are witnessing a wide range of disclosures of non-financial information. Research methods used in corporate social responsibility (CSR) are conditioned by the characteristics of this information. It is necessary to use appropriate methods to develop conclusions in this field. Here we have used ‘correspondence analysis’ to examine Annual Reports and Forms 20-F according to different Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). We examined 84 Annual Reports and Forms 20-F prepared before the harmonization of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) (for 1998 and 1999 of Spanish, German, and British companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)). Correspondence analysis has been useful in determining whether human resources disclosure policy depends on factors like the country of the firm, size, industry, listing status, or the audit company. The results show that there was a wide variety of disclosure and that country, size, industry, and listing status shaped this policy, with the most important difference being the type of report. This is just one clear example of the kind of research that can be applied to CSR when new statistical tools allow new approaches.

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Christopher Boachie and George K Amoako

Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred through observations made in a representative sample from that population. Since corporate social responsibility researchers rarely observe entire populations, sampling and statistical inference are essential. Data analysis is a process used to transform, remodel, and revise certain information with a view to reaching a certain conclusion for a given situation or problem. The analysis can be carried out by different methods as according to the needs and requirements of different domains in corporate social responsibility. This chapter reviews the current status of statistical methods and their influences on financial corporate social responsibility research. Secondary data on statistical research methods were employed together with a survey of published articles on corporate social responsibility. The implication of the conclusion is that the insights gained from this chapter serve as genuine sources of knowledge for researchers in the field of CSR.

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Christopher Boachie

This chapter provides guidelines for the design and execution of survey research in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The specific requirements of survey research aimed at gathering and analysing data for theory testing are contrasted with other types of survey research. The focus is motivated by the need to tackle the various issues which arise in the process of survey research. This chapter guides the researcher and presents a systematic picture which synthesizes suitable survey practices for research in the CSR context. This will contribute to an increase in the quality of research and, as a consequence, provide details on the application of surveys in CSR research. Surveys reflect societal change in a way that few other research tools do. Organizations have adopted new methods for selecting telephone samples; these new methods were made possible by the creation of large databases that include all listed telephone numbers. The widespread decline in response rates for all types of surveys has been a problem. In the face of this problem, survey researchers have developed new theories of non-response that build on the persuasion literature in social psychology. Surveys have adopted many new methods of data collection; the new modes reflect technological developments in computing and the emergence of the Internet.

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Alexandra (Sasha) Cook and Bertolt Meyer

Although most definitions of leadership acknowledge the act of leading itself as being an interactional behavior between at least two individuals, we know surprisingly little about what leaders actually do and in which ways the concrete and observable behavior of formal or informal leaders in organizations and teams is related to outcomes such as leadership success or subjective leadership impressions by employees or team members. This chapter aims at summarizing existing methods for observing leadership behavior and leadership behavior coding schemes. Additionally, the authors take a closer look at current empirical evidence from emergent leadership research on behavioral parameters and their automated measurement with wearable sensors. Based on this review, they discuss the prospective operational capability of measures such as automated movement and interaction analyses in observational studies on leadership behaviors and their possible contribution beyond the limits of existing behavioral coding systems.

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Edited by Birgit Schyns, Rosalie J. Hall and Pedro Neves

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Wen-Dong Li, Remus Ilies and Wei Wang

Behavioral genetics approaches to the study of individual differences have been widely applied in various disciplines in social sciences to investigate the “nature versus/and nurture” issue through disentangling influences from genetic factors (i.e., influences from nature) and environmental factors (i.e., influences from nurture). However, leadership research has only recently embraced such approaches. This is unfortunate considering the long-standing debate on whether leaders are born or made, and the more recent emphasis on person–environment interplay in leadership research. In this chapter, the authors first discuss the importance of the behavioral genetics approach to organizational research. They then introduce two types of behavioral genetics research that have been adopted so far: classic twin studies and molecular genetic research capitalizing on specific DNA information. Specifically, they explain how univariate biometric analyses, and bivariate biometric analyses based on twin studies can be applied to study important issues in leadership research. With respect to molecular genetic research, they discuss the candidate gene approach and genome-wide association studies, and how they can be useful in advancing leadership research. They also provide brief research examples based on previous research in which such approaches can be employed in addressing critical questions in leadership.

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Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

In this chapter, I would like to argue that the future research agenda in corporate social responsibility (CSR) will move beyond strategic responsibility and become a major ethical concern at all levels of society. The chapter will demonstrate the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilization marked by globalization and technological progress. I consider that the concept of responsibility in the future will be the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilization. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict legal definition in terms of imputability. Moreover, this implies that corporate responsibility cannot solely be defined strategically in terms of profits or shared values. The chapter begins by discussing the humanistic foundations of such a concept of responsibility. It looks at the historical origins of responsibility and it relates this concept to the concept of accountability. On the basis of this historical determination of the concept I would like to present the definition of the concept of responsibility as a fundamental ethical principle that has increasing importance as the foundation of the principles of governance in modern welfare states. In this context the chapter discusses the extension of the concept of responsibility towards institutional or corporate ethical responsibility where responsibility does not only concern the responsibility of individuals but also deals with the responsibility of institutional collectivities.

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Miguel Pina e Cunha, Marianne Lewis, Arménio Rego and Wendy K. Smith

The chapter discusses the role of biographical methods in leadership research. Biographical methods refer to a variety of approaches that include self-narratives, autobiographies, and historical biographies. The authors explore an individual’s life story to elucidate its dynamics over time. Biographical methods engage with the lived experience of leadership and aim to explore the richness of the experience of leading. They aim to generate deep-level and holistic insights into the behaviors, relationships, thoughts, and emotions of leaders, and help to make sense of how such behaviors, relationships, thoughts, and emotions dynamically unfold over time and in context. Biographical methods provide a rich combination of breadth (the dimensions across a leader’s life) and depth (the intimate details about the leader’s life and circumstances over time). Such combination of breadth and depth favors the creation of insight into factors often excluded from leadership research, namely the paradoxical tensions and inconsistencies inherent in leadership processes.

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Aurora J. Dixon, Jessica M. Webb and Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang

Traditionally, leadership research relies on tools such as observations and surveys to characterize leaders’ traits and behaviors, followers’ reactions, and leader–follower interactions and coordination to understand the leadership process. Recent development in biological and physiological assessments has offered leadership scholars additional ways to measure processes in leaders and followers. These methods can be used to capture subtle processes of different biological systems, such as activities in the brain, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems of leaders and followers. Such processes may not only be outside individuals’ awareness, but also have limited outwardly visible signs. Despite this, they provide additional insights into understanding how leaders exercise effective influence; how followers perceive, share, and respond to messages from leaders; and how leaders and followers reciprocally affect each other. In this chapter, the authors first introduce biological and physiological sensors, and discuss their applications in the leadership research. Next, they discuss various biological and physiological measures and their advantages over the traditional measurement tools typically used in leadership research. Third, they review the extent to which these biological and physiological measures already have been adopted by leadership researchers. Finally, recommendations and future directions are presented for leadership scholars who are interested in utilizing these measures.