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Jessica R. Botfield, Anthony B. Zwi and Christy E. Newman

Young people from culturally diverse backgrounds, including migrants, refugees and international students, are at heightened risk of poor sexual and reproductive health. However while they have varied and sometimes complex health needs, these are often overlooked, and sexual and reproductive health services underutilised. This chapter reviews key issues relating to the sexual and reproductive health of young people from diverse migrant backgrounds, and emphasises the importance of appropriately engaging them through culturally sensitive approaches to sexual health promotion and service provision. Focusing on Australia as a case study in contemporary multiculturalism, it explores the complexities of designing effective healthcare systems that take into account their varied experiences and backgrounds, and reviews approaches to the promotion of sexual and reproductive health for these diverse communities. Reflecting on the mechanisms employed to engage culturally diverse young people with sexual and reproductive services, the chapter reinforces the importance of a youth-friendly setting and the promotion of cultural competence in sexual healthcare.
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Celia McMichael

Climate change will shape human migration as it amplifies and creates pressures that contribute to the displacement and migration of individuals, families and communities. Migration is increasingly presented as a strategic and adaptive response to climate variability and environmental change. Climate-related migration, however, affects population health as it presents both opportunities and threats for the wellbeing of migrants as well as their host and home communities. This chapter focuses on potential health outcomes of climate-related migration across different stages of the migration process – pre-departure, transit, displacement, planned relocation, resettlement and return – and with reference to different ‘migrant types’ (e.g., post-disaster displacement, planned resettlement schemes). It draws on analogous case studies from, for example, the Northwest Arctic region, Morocco, Sri Lanka and the South Pacific. While migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, it is critical to better understand and respond to the potential health impacts for migrant populations and home/host communities.
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Richard M. Friend and Pakamas Thinphanga

This chapter addresses the nexus of regionalization, urbanization, and climate change. Historically a region that has until recently been predominantly rural and agricultural, the Mekong is going through a period of dramatic economic, social, and ecological transformation at a pace and scale of intensity rarely, if ever, witnessed before. As with other parts of the world, much of the urbanization in the region is occurring in hazardous space, with patterns of urbanization contributing to global climate change, while also creating new, more localized vulnerabilities and risks. The chapter approaches urbanization from the perspective of complex social-ecological systems that are shaped through highly politicized processes of contestation that create and distribute power, benefits, risks, and vulnerabilities across people and locations. In considering the drivers of urbanization, we focus on the significance of investments in regional economic integration that is now transforming networks of physical infrastructure, technology, and flows of investment and trade. Related to these patterns of capital and changing social relations are crucial shifts in values in what cities represent, and in creating urban people as labor and consumers, rather than citizens. This perspective raises fundamental challenges around governance; how power and knowledge come together in framing policy “problems,” setting agendas, shaping institutional processes, and determining outcomes that become all the more complex in the context of uncertainty and risk associated with climate change. Critically, this perspective allows us to reconsider issues of urban poverty and climate vulnerability. Rather than focusing on essentially negative freedoms of reduction in poverty and vulnerability, the chapter argues for the need to place issues of well-being and rights to the city center stage in shaping a future research agenda.
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Robert H. Wilson and Todd G. Smith

Climate change and its potential effects are increasingly important concerns to the scientific community, governments, international organizations, and exposed populations around the world. No region of the world is unaffected by climate change but residents of urban areas in Africa are particularly vulnerable. This vulnerability stems from high rates of urbanization coupled with poor urban planning, gaps in public services and infrastructure, settlement in hazard-prone areas, and high levels of poverty, illiteracy, and poor health but also to low adaptive capacity and high vulnerability to climate-related hazards. This  chapter examines the capacity of governmental systems, with an emphasis on large cities in Africa, to prepare for and respond to climate change and increased exposure to climate-related hazards, especially urban flooding, sea level rise, and water scarcity. The chapter is organized around two primary questions: (1) How will the consequences of future climate change affect people living in African cities and what determines the vulnerability of these exposures? (2) How does the development of initiatives to build urban resilience to climate change vary across urban areas and what factors explain the variation? Local government plays a key role in in developing resilience and addressing urban vulnerabilities through the provision of local infrastructure and public services, promulgation, and regulation of land use and building codes, and other local services. While many countries have developed, or are developing, national climate adaptation plans, efforts to address adaptation at the local level are frequently challenged by a lack of collaboration between multiple local government jurisdictions with limited capacity. The chapter adopts a comparative case study approach based on field research on the governance systems in a set of African cities: Accra, Alexandria, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dakar, Dar es Salaam, Johannesburg, Kampala, Luanda, and Maputo.
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Lazaros Karaliotas and Giovanni Bettini

The role of the “urban” in the epochal changes that can be foreseen on the horizon, is a prominent theme in the plethora of academic and policy interventions concerned with the Anthropocene. Here, discussions over the vulnerabilities of cities to the impacts of the Anthropocene, and on policy arrangements capable of enhancing the resilience of urban centers hold a central position. In parallel, a series of more politicized interventions and movements posit the city as the terrain for environmental discourses and politics, arguing that urban contexts will be the stage for emancipatory environmental politics. The urban – and not the rural, as in other phases of environmentalism – is thus presented as the privileged terrain for the sprouting of a new set of local identities, struggles, and demands. Such discourses portray the local and localism (within urban contexts) as the cradle of resilience and the condition for envisioning more socio-ecologically sustainable futures. In this contribution we explore the role of urban localism and local resilience and trace the limits of localized responses to the Anthropocene. For sure, the strains the Anthropocene puts on cities symptomatizes the need to rethink socio-ecological and economic relations. Cities will increasingly become the terrain of struggle as well as experimentation. At the same time, the return to localism can hardly provide a conclusive answer to the question posed by the Anthropocene. This is particularly so within a context of planetary urbanization where the borders between the rural and the urban, the local and the global, the inside and the outside are constantly blurred and continuously redrawn. Here borders emerge as processes of contestation, partition, and connection. These evolutions, we argue, imply a dislocation of the local that poses serious challenges to localist agendas and politics – calling for a different understanding of the political identities that are constructed and the struggles that unfold in and through the urban environment.
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John Rennie Short

In this chapter I will explore the historical connections between Nature and the City. The capitalizations represent the more general themes rather than the specific objects. I will consider four broad themes that correspond to a sweeping historical trajectory, with ruptures and continuities. In “Nature Incorporated” I will look at how the early cities incorporated Nature. From the frescoes of Çatalhöyük, when the division between Nature and the City was new and slight, to the urban gardens of today’s contemporary cities I will show how city residents incorporate Nature in different ways. In “Nature Planned” I will examine the rise of the more formal incorporation of Nature in city parks that arose as a Romantic response to rapid urbanization. I will look at the evolution of city parks, such as the Bois de Boulogne in Paris from royal preserve to bourgeois play space to its present role as a setting for the nighttime sexual economy. In “Nature Overcome” I will look at the rise of the modernist city and especially its premise of the mastery and defeat of Nature. Urban modernism for all intents and purposes involved the marginalization of Nature. In “Nature Recreated” I will look at the present day greening of cities from New York’s High Line to Seoul’s Cheonggyecheon and especially the resurrection and creative recreation of an urban Nature.
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Donald Houston

Urbanization, particularly high-density urban development, increases non-porous surface area, which can increase flood risk. Climate change is also increasing flood risk in many parts of the world. The socio-spatial distribution of vulnerability and resilience to flooding and flood risk is highly differentiated. Urban flooding therefore not only raises important justice issues of acute policy relevance. This chapter develops a framework that uses concepts of justice to understand the justice consequences of different policies to alleviate flood risk and mitigate the impacts of flooding. Specifically, the chapter examines the distributional justice concepts of “need,” “desert,” “equality,” and “market values” and the procedural justice concepts of “knowledge,” “choice,” and “power.” These concepts are considered in relation to: (1) decision-making criteria in the provision of flood defences; (2) the changing availability of flood insurance; and (3) the operation of urban housing markets and systems. Empirical evidence is drawn from: (a) documentary sources; (b) qualitative interviews with public policy-makers, private insurers, and emergency service providers; and (c) focus groups with flood victims in contrasting urban settings in the United Kingdom.
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Christophe Parnet

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Loretta Baldassar, Majella Kilkey, Laura Merla and Raelene Wilding

The notion of ‘transnational families’ emerged at the beginning of the twenty-first century to designate in particular ‘families that live some or most of the time separated from each other, yet hold together and create something that can be seen as a feeling of collective welfare and unity, namely “familyhood”, even across national borders’ (Bryceson and Vuorela, 2002: 18). Because of geographical distance, the maintenance of collective welfare and unity in transnational families largely relies on the ability of transnational family members to participate in the circulation of care across distance and national borders, an ability that represents a key feature of migrant wellbeing. The concept of care is indeed strongly related to issues surrounding welfare and wellbeing, both at an individual and collective level. As Daly (2011) points out, care relates not only to the servicing of the needs of those who cannot take care of themselves as well as those who are able-bodied, it also emphasises in a broader sense the relational foundations of all social life. In other words, ‘key elements of people's welfare inhere in their relations with others and the reciprocity around responses to need and the receipt of recognition and value for who people are’ (Daly, 2011: 47–48). In this chapter, we define the circulation of care in transnational families as a ‘capability’ (Sen, 1987), and discuss how the ability to participate in care exchanges impacts on the wellbeing of transnational family members – in terms of the provision of their care needs, of reciprocal care obligations and practices, and of identity recognition. This also leads us to examine the ways in which new communication technologies transform the ways in which caring relationships are experienced and practiced, and to highlight how policy mediates families’ capabilities to care across distance.
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Louise Guibrunet and Vanesa Castán Broto

Urbanization, a defining characteristic of our modern times, is a multidimensional process that involves both social and spatial transformations, within and beyond the boundaries of any given city. Urbanization today cannot be understood without examining the informal city. Informality refers to patterns of spatial organization, social relations, and economic exchanges which emerge in a variety of settings such as urban sprawl or the globalization of urban economic markets. Informality is crucial not just because it represents an important share of the existing and future urban fabric and economy of many world cities, but also because it relates to the myriad of ways in which everyday citizens go about their lives, thus shaping the city and its relation to the environment. Given the importance of informality in making the city, studies of urban metabolism (that is, flows of natural resources and materials through the urban system) may lose relevance if they are not able to engage with informality as a subject of study. In this chapter we advocate for an urban metabolism analysis that, while engaging with material flows and the political economy of the city, recognizes the dynamics of informal settlements and their importance in the making of the modern city. Urban metabolism is here a strategy to unravel the political ecology of the city, and in particular, how formal and informal relations shape material and political exchanges between cities and the environment.