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Alex de Ruyter, Muhammad Irfan Syaebani, Riani Rachmawati, David Bailey and Tonia Warnecke

This chapter explores the labour market experiences of vendors (particularly street vendors), a prominent category of informal worker. Accordingly, the chapter reports on findings of interviews with vendors in the Greater Jakarta region of Indonesia, so as to shed light on the aspects of labour market vulnerability that they face, and hence highlight some lessons for labour law enforcement. The findings of the research provide insights on the issues affecting workers in these sectors and, more importantly, inform policy-makers and practitioners on the effectiveness of regulation to cover informal sector workers in Indonesia and in a wider context.

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Whistleblowers as information sources

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Whistleblowers attempt to disclose information about what they perceive as illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices. Fraud investigators reconstruct the past after suspicions of misconduct and financial crime. Whistleblowers are an important source of information for many fraud investigators. In this chapter, characteristics of whistleblowers and their trustworthiness as information sources and the quality of pieces of information are discussed.

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Conor Quigley

This chapter describes the application of State aid rules to the United Kingdom during the financial crisis. It considers the schemes granted through bank recapitalization, the wholesale funding guarantee scheme, short-term liquidity measures, and a working capital guarantee scheme or asset-backed securities scheme. It also describes individual aid granted by the UK State to Northern Rock, Bradford & Bingley, Dunfermline Building Society, Royal Bank of Scotland and Lloyds Banking Group.

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Edited by Alina Averchenkova, Sam Fankhauser and Michal Nachmany

A deepening understanding of the importance of climate change has caused a recent and rapid increase in the number of climate change or climate-related laws. Trends in Climate Change Legislation offers an astute analysis of the political, institutional and economic factors that have motivated this surge, placing it into context.
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Janet Austin

This chapter surveys the changes that have taken place in securities markets and in relation to securities market trading over the last two decades and the risks to market integrity inherent in these changes. It considers why these changes occurred and how they may have impacted upon opportunities to engage in insider trading and market manipulation. It also considers the challenges these changes have caused for securities regulators in terms of the detection, investigation and prosecution of market manipulation and insider trading which crosses borders. Finally, this chapter examines the regulatory responses of specific governments to the changes and how these new laws may deter insider trading and market manipulation as well as assist regulators in their efforts to detect, investigate and prosecute these offences.

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Testing convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

This chapter tests convenience theory by studies of autobiographies. We were able to find a variety of statements produced by offenders that illustrate application of neutralization techniques in the behavioral dimension of convenience theory. Convenience theory is also tested in student elicitations, where students’ average responses indicate that issues in convenience theory are more important to determine white-collar crime than issues in society. The five most important issues are all convenience items.

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Edited by François-Charles Laprévote, Joanna Gray and Francesco De Cecco

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Edited by François-Charles Laprévote, Joanna Gray and Francesco De Cecco

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Student survey on convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

To study convenience theory empirically, this chapter presents a student elicitation on white-collar crime. Student elicitation is derived from expert elicitation, where experts are asked to say something about the unknown. Expert elicitation seeks to make explicit and utilizable knowledge and attitudes in the heads of experts. Expert elicitation seeks to make explicit and utilizable the unpublished knowledge and wisdom in the heads of experts, based on their accumulated experience as well as their interpretation and reflection in a given context. Elicitation is defined as collecting information from people as part of human intelligence. An elicitation technique or elicitation procedure is applied to collect and gather information from people. Expert elicitation is defined as the synthesis of opinions of experts on a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data.

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François-Charles Laprévote and Florine Coupé

In the early days of the financial crisis, the Commission’s review of State aid granted to banks in order to remedy serious threats to a national economy was still in its infancy. However, the length and intensity of the crisis resulted in a tailored-made and detailed ‘Crisis Framework’. This chapter outlines the various measures used by Member States to support their banks facing financial difficulties, e.g., recapitalization, impaired assets measures, guarantees, and liquidity measures. This chapter also describes the applicable texts, the emblematic cases, and the Commission’s assessment of the main legal issues for each type of measure.