This chapter discusses how responsible start-ups are met in the health sector. Through following three companies, Voco, Cora and Medicus, we acquire insight into the world of challenges the entrepreneurs have when they introduce their technology/service to the healthcare sector. Using institutional theory, we look at the regulative, normative and cognitive dimension of the institutional framework. We use the term ‘institutional wall’ to denote a dense network of formal laws and regulation, informal norms and knowledge and beliefs that act as barriers for the entrepreneurs to access the market. We find that while there is a positive development in the regulative dimension: both the regulative and the normative dimension are set up to favour larger companies. The founders’ responses to the cognitive dimension indicate a lack of belief in Norwegian technology and thus tough access to finance.
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Elin M. Oftedal and Lene Foss
Empowering the Patient
Edited by Tatiana Iakovleva, Elin M. Oftedal and John Bessant
Edited by Dagmar Simon, Stefan Kuhlmann, Julia Stamm and Weert Canzler
Dagmar Simon, Stefan Kuhlmann, Julia Stamm and Weert Canzler
This Handbook on Science and Public Policy will capture a landscape in flux: the relation between science and society has been changing in the last decades, and it has become a hot topic in the science system and in science policy studies. Even though historically the topic is not new, it seems that the roles of science and innovation are being debated more explicitly: the demand for science-based innovation is growing while the legitimation of scientific research is being questioned. Scientific knowledge is hailed as a significant societal and economic resource in global competition. Innovations emerging from science are considered to be the key to market success and prosperity. At the same time, scientific knowledge and research-based innovation are supposed to address so-called grand societal challenges and help achieve ‘sustainable development goals’ (United Nations 2015). Yet, there is also pressure to legitimise the increasing amounts of public funding for research worldwide. And the questions ‘how does society benefit from science?’ and ‘which research is “relevant” and “useful”?’ are raised emphatically. The changing relationship between science and society significantly challenges science policy: research is expected to foster and support innovation not only via new technologies but also in a way which is socially acceptable and sustainable. Moreover, it is expected to develop new instruments, methods and practices for its own accountability and legitimation that are accepted by the scientific community. This is where this Handbook comes in. It focuses on how science policy has changed over the last decades and raises several overarching questions: What are the consequences of changing science policies for science and the science systems nationally and internationally? How far do they go? Do they tackle the fundamental principles of science, its norms, standards and reputation systems? And what does this mean for modern science (and technology)? The chapters of the Handbook provide different answers from a broad range of theoretical and conceptual perspectives.
In the previous Chapters (4_7) we discussed the numerous uses and appli¬cations of the Internet for people, companies, and systems, all within urban contexts. All of these uses and applications have come already into operation so far. In this last chapter of Part II of the book we are about to explore a rather upcoming application of IoT, probably being the most extensive, daring and crucial one, namely communications by and to vehicles, thus turning them into driverless AVs.
We will begin this chapter with the summaries of the previous chapters, pre¬sented in sequence. We will then move to an interpretation of the Internet as a general-purpose technology, and finally, we will conclude the book with an evaluation of the general theme of the book as presenting Internet applications, followed by Internet implications, within an urban framework.
In the previous chapter, we outlined numerous services that urbanites have traditionally obtained in urban physical space, and which they now growingly pursue through the Internet. Individuals, who use their Internet connectivity, whether fixed and/or mobile, for the performance of service activities, find themselves simultaneously present in physical space bodily and within Internet space virtually. Hence, this chapter is devoted to an exposure and interpreta¬tion of the emerging hybrid dual-space society, consisting of the double pres¬ences of individuals in urban physical and Internet virtual spaces. The chapter will focus on the very conception of hybrid dual-space and its emergence, followed by an exposure of the ways in which urbanites experience it, as well as function within it.
This chapter presents the development, structure, and distribution of the Internet for people, as well as of the IoT for non-living entities. The chapter will highlight, first, the history of the Internet and its structure. In this dis¬cussion, special attention will be devoted to the comprehensive nature of the Internet, in its double role as a communications medium and an information service, as well as to its becoming mobile, as of the late 1990s.
The Internet is consumed as a powerful communications, business, and infor¬mation tool, by commercial, industrial and service businesses, as well as by organizations and societies of all types. As such, the Internet is important for them, similar to its importance for individuals, as portrayed in Chapters 4_5. However, the Internet for businesses is not meaningful just for its consump¬tion, thus presenting a demand side. The Internet for companies and organi¬zations constitutes also a supply side, since companies serve as producers of products and services sold to individual customers, who are also Internet sub¬scribers. Thus, the Internet per se may serve as a mediating channel between demand and supply, as being the two sides of transaction processes between companies and their customers. Thus, in this chapter, we will elaborate, first, on the penetration processes of the Internet into the operations of companies and organizations, notably small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and the numerous uses of the Internet pursued by them.