Browse by title

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 512 items :

  • Agricultural Economics x
  • Development Studies x
Clear All Modify Search
This content is available to you

Colin White

You do not have access to this content

A History of the Global Economy

The Inevitable Accident

Colin White

Providing an exceptional overview and analysis of the global economy, from the origins of Homo sapiens to the present day, Colin White explores our past to help understand our economic future. He veers away from traditional Eurocentric approaches, providing a truly global scope for readers. The main themes include the creative innovativeness of humans and how this generates economic progression, the common economic pathway trodden by all societies, and the complementary relationship between government and the market.
You do not have access to this content

International Agricultural Law and Policy

A Rights-Based Approach to Food Security

Hope Johnson

Globalised agriculture and food systems are at the crux of significant issues facing humanity from the rise in diet-related diseases to water pollution and biodiversity loss. Yet, legal scholarship on the regulation of agriculture and food is only now emerging. This timely book provides the first systematic analysis of the public international rules influencing agriculture. Each chapter considers the regulatory instruments that intersect with different components of agricultural systems from land tenure and soils through to agricultural in-puts and trade.
This content is available to you

Mary Jane Angelo

This chapter serves as an introduction to the issues associated with agriculture and climate change and provides context for the other chapters in the volume. It describes how, although a wide range of ideas and perspectives are presented in the volume, several common themes emerge. Climate change and agriculture are part of a complex web of science, law and policy, which extends from the global scale to the smallholder. Agriculture is a significant contributor to climate change and thus should be considered part of the solution, as well as part of the problem. Consequently changes to agricultural systems that reduce GHG emissions, sequester carbon or put land to use in ways that reduce overall atmospheric carbon can be important tools for climate change mitigation. Conversely agriculture in general and food security in particular, will suffer serious adverse impacts from climate change even with mitigation measures in place. Accordingly agricultural adaptation strategies targeted at agricultural production will be critical to ensuring food security in the future. Because of the pervasive complexity and uncertainty regarding climate change impacts on agriculture, it will be important to ensure that any adaptation efforts employ systems approaches aimed at building resiliency in agricultural production as well as in the entire agricultural value chain. In many cases resilient agricultural systems are comprised of both mitigation and adaptive elements. Thus building more resilient systems will have benefits in reducing the adverse effects of climate change as well as adapting to the inevitable effects that will occur. Although climate change will result in adverse impacts throughout the globe, disproportionate impacts will be felt by the poorest and most vulnerable populations. Regions of the developing world face the greatest threats to food security. Mitigation and adaptation strategies, including regulatory and financial policies must include measures to ensure greater food security for poor and vulnerable populations. This volume provides a number of proposals for climate change mitigation and adaptation aimed at providing food security for a growing population in an era of dramatic changes to the global environment. Key Words: food security, climate change, agriculture, resilience, adaptation, mitigation

You do not have access to this content

Lance H Gunderson

Ongoing climate change will continue to provide surprises to agricultural ecosystems. Resilience, adaptation and transformation are models that can be used to think about how complex agro-ecosystems change over time. Resilience is an inherent property of systems that describes how complex systems respond to disturbances (such as storms, floods and droughts) and describes how systems undergo qualitative shifts in structure and function into alternative system states or regimes. Such regime shifts or transformations involve dynamics of processes operating across many nested spatial scales. Large-scale systems such as the atmosphere can influence regional patterns of climate. Climate and weather at regional scales can influence changes in agro-ecosystems at the field level, the farm level, and farming community levels. Large-scale economic processes such as globalization and world-wide delivery systems can link local production with markets half a world away. Small-scale processes such as microbial respiration in tilled or drained organic soils contribute to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Such cross-scale, nonlinear dynamics create large uncertainties in our ability to predict how these systems will respond to changes in climatic drivers. Dealing with such uncertainty will require programs that focus on understanding and learning as much or more than development of better policies, laws or programs. Moreover, such uncertainties require new and innovative trials that allow practitioners to learn and probe uncertainty. The cost of not doing so will result in a less desirable future, rather than one that may be more equitable, just and sustainable. Key Words: resilience, transformation, adaptation, climate change, agro-ecosystems

You do not have access to this content

Edited by Mary Jane Angelo and Anél Du Plesis

Bringing together scholars from across the globe, this timely book astutely untangles the climate-food web and critically explores the nexus between climate change, agriculture and law, upon which food security and climate resilient development depends.
You do not have access to this content

Michelle Nowlin and Emily Spiegel

Agriculture is both a driver of global climate change and a key partner in the quest for solutions. It is also a critical segment of the world’s economy, and one particularly vulnerable to climate change. Agriculture is a significant source of two of the most potent greenhouse gases: nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), accounting for approximately 70 and 25 percent of emissions, respectively, across all US economic sectors. Of agriculture’s total greenhouse gas contribution, approximately 30 percent is attributed to the livestock sector. Despite the significant role the livestock industry plays in greenhouse gas emissions, it has thus far evaded regulation in the US. Instead, approaches to reducing livestock greenhouse gas emissions have been voluntary, incentive-based, and wholly inadequate to the scale and urgency of the problem. As we seek ways to lower greenhouse gas emissions and forestall the effects of global climate change, we must remove the protections long afforded the agricultural industry and adapt existing regulatory tools to address its contributions. This chapter examines the structure of the US livestock industry and the research quantifying its greenhouse gas emissions. It explores emerging mitigation measures and regulatory tools to address and reduce its contributions. It includes an overview of the approaches to regulating the livestock industry and greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act, as well as other voluntary and incentive-based government programs. Key Words: anaerobic digestion, livestock, manure management, greenhouse gases, Farm Bill

You do not have access to this content

Rebecca M Bratspies

This chapter addresses two specific narratives about genetically-modified organisms in an era of changing climate – the putative role for genetically-engineered crops in adaptation to climate change, and the putative role for genetic engineering as a mitigation strategy to reduce the climate change trajectory. This chapter takes up each set of claims in turn, examining how genetically-engineered crops might, or might not, be part of a climate change solution. Key Words: GMOs, climate change, genetic engineering, agricultural biotechnology, climate mitigation, climate adaptation, sustainability

You do not have access to this content

Paul Martin

This chapter takes a systems approach to understanding the degree to which rural sustainability might be achievable under conditions of climate change. It considers the problem of legal effectiveness from a strategic perspective, considering first the interconnectivity of fundamental biophysical systems, and then links these to socio-economic dynamics to provide a rich understanding of the likely effects of climate change on rural areas and on governance itself. The chapter highlights the extent to which the nature of environmental problems will continue to depart from the ones that are well understood, to different self-generating and very complex types, for which innovative governance approaches are essential. Key Words: governance systems, complexity, rural communities, agriculture

You do not have access to this content

Robert W Adler

Under international law, every person has a human right to basic life support goods and services, including food, clothing and shelter. All of these are supplied in part by agricultural economies. A growing global population will also increase demand for fiber and other agricultural materials, as well as biofuels that increasingly compete with food for agricultural production. Water is essential to this agricultural productivity, but water reliability is likely to decline in many regions of the world in the face of climate change. Water may be available in an agricultural region generally, but not at the location of the best soils or other resources, thus requiring storage and transport to support a successful agricultural economy. Sufficient water may be available to grow particular crops, but other parties may have competing water rights. Poor water quality may affect some crops more than others. Water law regimes, both domestic and international, help human economies use available water supplies for agriculture efficiently, effectively, or equitably, depending on the goals established by the governing law. Increasingly, water law also seeks to preserve human uses while also protecting aquatic and other water dependent ecosystems. As a result, there is a pressing need for individual nations and the global community to design and implement strategies to adapt existing water law to the potentially significant impacts of climate change. This chapter explores the impacts of climate change on the relationship between water and agriculture, and the degree to which domestic and international water law will have to adapt to those impacts. It reviews predictions about the likely impact of climate change on water supplies and the stability and reliability of those supplies. The chapter also evaluates the ability of both international water law and domestic water law – using US water law as the prime example – to adapt to those changes. Key Words: climate change, water law, agriculture, adaptation, risk, water supply