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A History of the Global Economy

The Inevitable Accident

Colin White

Providing an exceptional overview and analysis of the global economy, from the origins of Homo sapiens to the present day, Colin White explores our past to help understand our economic future. He veers away from traditional Eurocentric approaches, providing a truly global scope for readers. The main themes include the creative innovativeness of humans and how this generates economic progression, the common economic pathway trodden by all societies, and the complementary relationship between government and the market.
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Colin White

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International Agricultural Law and Policy

A Rights-Based Approach to Food Security

Hope Johnson

Globalised agriculture and food systems are at the crux of significant issues facing humanity from the rise in diet-related diseases to water pollution and biodiversity loss. Yet, legal scholarship on the regulation of agriculture and food is only now emerging. This timely book provides the first systematic analysis of the public international rules influencing agriculture. Each chapter considers the regulatory instruments that intersect with different components of agricultural systems from land tenure and soils through to agricultural in-puts and trade.
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Christian Häberli

Agriculture is more affected by climate change, it contributes more to GHG emissions, but it also offers more development opportunities in a climate change perspective than other sectors. This chapter asks whether the food value chain is climate change resilient under the present international regulatory framework. The research hypothesis is that a legal analysis of the issues at stake has to include the specific situation of weak states, small farmers and poor consumers. This is a still under-researched issue of policy space and tools coherence both at national and international levels. Climate change affects poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Hence mitigation and adaptation strategies need to consider other issues including production subsidies, productivity, non-food uses of agricultural land such as biofuels for local production and for exports, biotechnology, standards and labelling, carbon taxation and emission trading, water and fish, risk insurance and export restrictions, food stockpiles, mitigation of various vulnerabilities, gender, local and international migration and violence. From a regulatory perspective the relevant question is whether the present policies and tools promoting food production, investment and trade are good enough to cope with the additional challenge of global warming. This overview shows that today’s regulatory deficits are anything but climate change-resilient. The presently non-negotiable deficiencies of several WTO rules, and the lack of stringent disciplines for trade-distorting farm and fish subsidies, jeopardize climate action for agriculture. There is a need to review regional trade agreements and sectorial agreements including on energy, aviation, water management, shipping, fishing and migration – even the preferential treatment of climate-friendly products and processing methods from developing countries. Changes are also required for international investment treaties. Foreign direct investment in agriculture is under-regulated and over-protected. However, required first and foremost are multilaterally agreed climate-smart best farming and processing practices. These standards would then need to be enshrined in a credible multilateral environmental agreement, and protected against legal challenges in the WTO, similarly to internationally agreed food safety standards. This exercise quite possibly implies some new and climate-specific trade and investment rules for agriculture, water and aquaculture. Absent such new or modified rules, climate change – if it continues according to scientific forecasts – might marginalize some of the net food-importing developing countries even more, and drive poor smallholders out of business even faster. Key Words: climate change, agriculture, trade, investment, development, WTO

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Robert Kibugi

The evidence of climate change is now irrefutable. African ecosystems are already being affected by climate change, which will further amplify existing stress on water availability in Africa, with strong adverse effects on food security. Kenya faces climate change impacts in its development efforts, particularly in the vulnerability of smallholder, mainly rain-fed, agriculture, to climate variability. The chapter examines the role of the law in framing appropriate tools that can be deployed for use by the government and farmers in order to coordinate adaptation strategies in a manner that builds resilience, and enhances adaptive capacity. In particular, the argument is that it is necessary to pursue mainstreaming of climate change strategies into agriculture law and policy priorities, in order to ensure that from national policy to land use choices by farmers, adaptation is internalized as an imperative for agriculture decision making. Key Words: climate change, adaptation, agriculture, economy, land use, extension

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Keith H Hirokawa

Especially in the context of agriculture and local land use, control strategies are critical considerations in a climate change response. At no other level of governance are considerations of home and community identity more pervasive. At no other level of governance are the felt necessities more personal. And at no other level of governance do the citizens feel more empowered. And yet, reliance on land use controls for resiliency purposes is a complicated task. The pervasive and perennial problems that confront local governments as they turn their attention to the impacts of climate change involve financial ability to implement a vision of resiliency, authority to act within a federalist system, and community commitment on an issue that retains enough political controversy to call into question the police power justification for action. Key Words: agriculture, local, zoning, land use, planning, community

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Amanda Kennedy and Amy Cosby

Within the broader context of climate change, the recent rapid expansion of extractive fossil fuel industries (such as coal and unconventional gas) in agricultural communities throughout Australia has raised significant concerns over agricultural production capacity and food security. With many new coal and gas developments proposed either on or within close proximity to agriculturally productive land, both atmospheric impacts as well as direct land conversion have catalysed new and complicated land use conflicts, which existing regulatory frameworks have failed to resolve. Drawing upon a case study from the North West area of the state of New South Wales in Australia, this chapter examines conflict over agricultural land in the context of global climate change. It focuses particularly on regulatory reforms to better manage land use conflict, but finds that attempts at reform have thus far enjoyed little success in resolving land use disputes. Using an environmental justice lens, the chapter explores how community capacity to participate effectively in land use decision making was further constrained by reform efforts. By prioritising the broader economic benefits of extractive development, the values and views of agricultural communities were marginalised and discounted, serving to intensify opposition to development and entrenching broad-scale social conflict. The chapter concludes that the complex issue of agricultural land use conflict requires governance approaches that are grounded in principles of environmental justice. Greater attention to the distribution of environmental risks and harms, and the incorporation of mechanisms to ensure equal treatment in decision-making processes, will ultimately strengthen the capacity of agricultural communities to respond to environmental threats such as climate change. Key Words: agricultural land use conflict, environmental justice

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JB Ruhl

Programs to pay for ecosystem services from agricultural lands (AgPES) are designed to provide incentives to change on-farm practices and thereby rebalance the ecosystem services profile to increase off-farm flows of regulating and supporting services such as groundwater recharge, sediment control and pollination. This chapter focuses primarily on the legal details of AgPES program design with special attention to their potential role in climate change adaptation. The chapter first provides brief overviews of the ecosystem services framework and the design basics of AgPES programs. It then turns to the promise and challenges of AgPES programs in light of climate change adaptation policy. In closing, the chapter suggests some of the legal questions that should be asked and answered when using AgPES as a climate change adaptation policy instrument. Key Words: ecosystem services, agriculture, payment for ecosystem services, climate change adaptation

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Jonathan Verschuuren

This chapter critically assesses the current and potential role of the UNFCCC and related documents, most importantly the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, in addressing the combined challenges for the agricultural sector of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the changing climate while increasing productivity. To date, agriculture has only played a marginal role in the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and there are not many signs that things will be drastically different under the Paris Agreement. These international instruments certainly do not provide a powerful stimulus to adopt and implement policies aimed at converting agricultural practices to become climate smart. Under the UNFCCC, there is little attention to reducing emissions from agriculture. Most attention focuses on adaptation to climate change in rural areas in developing countries, particularly through the various instruments that finance adaptation projects in developing countries. Yet even in that area progress is painfully slow. Much more concrete action is needed to facilitate the transfer of adaptation technologies and adaptation know-how as well as funds to finance adaptation measures in agriculture to developing countries. For the developed countries, the UNFCCC does not make much of a contribution to addressing climate change and food security issues. Because emissions from agriculture have been rising on a yearly basis since 1990 and because the increase in demand for agricultural products (both for food and for biofuels) will cause emissions to rise further, agriculture can no longer be ignored in the international negotiations. Key Words: climate smart agriculture, technology transfer, food security, adaptation, mitigation, developing countries

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Sérgio Sauer, José Paulo Pietrafesa and Pedro Araujo Pietrafesa

The aim of this chapter is to analyze the expansion of ethanol production and sugarcane cultivation in the Brazilian Biome called Cerrado and its impacts on national levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main argument is that the production cycle of ethanol not only emits a large quantity of GHG, but also causes environmental and social problems in the regions where it is cultivated. Sugarcane, has been part of Brazilian agricultural history since the colonial era. More recently, it has been used to produce both sugar and/or ethanol, and the production of ethanol has increased greatly since the development of flex-fuel vehicles. After 2005, the Brazilian sugarcane harvest expanded by 69 percent due to the Brazilian National Agro Energy Plan (2006–2011), Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning, governmental financial incentives and international capital investments. It has a strong commercial appeal because of the ‘potential for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions’. Thus, the emissions were calculated using a method developed by Claros Garcia and Von Sperling (2010), concluding that the production cycle of ethanol is responsible for approximately 8.33 percent of total GHG emissions in Brazil. Besides such impact and despite the advances in technologies for the cultivation of sugarcane, the agrofuel industry is one of the main contributors to social and environmental issues in the Brazilian countryside. Key Words: sugarcane ethanol, Cerrado Biome, land use, environmental impacts, GHG, Brazil