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Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories

Revised and Extended Second Edition

Edited by Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp

Regional economics – an established discipline for several decades – has undergone a period of rapid change in the last ten years resulting in the emergence of several new perspectives. At the same time the methodology of regional economics has also experienced some surprising developments. This fully revised and updated Handbook brings together contributions looking at new pathways in regional economics, written by many well-known international scholars. The aim is to present the most cutting-edge theories explaining regional growth and local development. The authors highlight the recent advances in theories, the normative potentialities of these theories and the cross-fertilization of ideas between regional and mainstream economists. It will be an essential source of reference and information for both scholars and students in the field.
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Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp

The space-economy has never been static, but has always shown a state of flux. Regions are normally in transition; they are work in progress. As a consequence, we observe a complex evolution of regional systems that varies between growth and decline. Static location and allocation theories may be helpful in understanding underlying structures in regional economies, but do not offer a full-scale picture of the development of multi-actor processes and of the perpetual or temporal impediments for regional growth and prosperity. The conceptualization and solid explanation of regional growth, and differences therein, is still largely a mystery for the research community in many countries. There is no uniform panacea for enhancing or accelerating the development trajectory of regions in a national or supranational economy. Therefore, regional policy is still in many cases a black box; the outcomes of intensified regional growth strategies are often largely unpredictable. Best guesses are more common than testable and operational estimates of policy impacts. Against the above-mentioned backgrounds, the editors of the Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories published a decade ago a comprehensive volume with a rich collection of advanced contributions on the above challenges in regional economics and regional science. In the ten years since then the world, both the empirical regional world and the theoretical and empirical reflection on growth and development issues, has not come to a standstill. We have become sadder and wiser after economic crises, regional fragmentation trends, the introduction of radical technological innovation, and the awareness of failures of regional policy. However, we have also enriched our knowledge horizon, with new insights and new methods and theories of regional analysis. The time has now come to take a refreshing and new look at the achievements of regional growth and development theories.

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Cities and Regions in Crisis

The Political Economy of Sub-National Economic Development

Martin Jones

This book offers a new geographical political economy approach to our understanding of regional and local economic development in Western Europe over the last twenty years. It suggests that governance failure is occurring at a variety of spatial scales and an ‘impedimenta state’ is emerging. This is derived from the state responding to state intervention and economic development that has become irrational, ambivalent and disoriented. The book blends theoretical approaches to crisis and contradiction theory with empirical examples from cities and regions.
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Martin Jones

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Edited by John R. Bryson, Lauren Andres and Rachel Mulhall

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Edited by John R. Bryson, Lauren Andres and Rachel Mulhall

This Research Agenda provides both a state-of-the-art review of existing research on city-regions, and expands on new research approaches. Expert contributors from across the globe explore key areas for reading city-regions, including: trade, services and people, regional differentiation, big data, global production networks, governance and policy, and regional development. The book focuses on developing a more integrated and systematic approach to reading city-regions as part of regeneration economics, identifying conceptual and methodological developments in this field of study.
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Edited by Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Iréne Bernhard

Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.
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Åke E. Andersson and David Emanuel Andersson

In this chapter knowledge capital is seen as a specific combination of subsets of human and social capital, much as real estate capital combines physical and social capital. Knowledge capital is a key factor that drives economic growth and development. Knowledge is different from information; it is more complex and multifaceted, as it can be private or public. It can be embodied in machinery or tacit knowledge in humans, but dissemination processes cause its disembodiment. Scientific knowledge has become an increasingly important precondition for the emergence of investments in industrial research and development. The broad spectrum of new technologies in the pharmaceutical, biotechnological, information and transportation industries would have been unthinkable without earlier fundamental creativity in mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. Scientific breakthroughs almost always occur many decades before being exploited by entrepreneurial innovators. Rogers Hollingsworth has shown that the increasing complexity of many products and production systems requires a reorganization of scientific research with a greater emphasis on multidisciplinary departments and laboratories. The possibility of exploiting advantages of a diversified scientific knowledge base also points toward increasing dynamic comparative advantages of locating universities and research institutes in large cities. Quantitative analyses of science networks show that the San Francisco Bay Area, Boston, London, Tokyo, Paris and Randstad (Amsterdam) are the most important nodes in the world of science, with Beijing, Seoul and Shanghai exhibiting the highest growth rates in science output among large cities. The advantages of dynamic interactions between scientific creativity and industrial development will reinforce the long-term sustainable growth in regions that host large-scale agglomerations of scientific research.

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Åke E. Andersson and David Emanuel Andersson

In this chapter we claim that all goods are durable and in this respect they are all capital goods by definition. Our claim builds on Frank Knight’s analysis: any durable good is capital and must thus have a future return that is intrinsically uncertain. It is this uncertain return that is the subject matter of entrepreneurial judgment, as Knight also explained. But it is not only goods that are capital. Labor is also capital, which is why it makes more sense to speak of human capital. And this, too, reflects uncertain future returns, in this case of investments in education. Even land is capital, since inaccessible land without network links to the rest of the world yields no return: it lacks capital value. The durability of capital and the rate of depreciation are key attributes of capital. Deterministic models show that if households and firms were to optimize these attributes, then the equilibrium growth rate would equal the real interest rate in a multi-good economy. We also show that a good’s durability determines the number of firms and thus the potential market form, in the case that production, transport and transaction costs jointly determine equilibrium. The greater the durability of a good is, the smaller its trading cost will be, other things being equal. Trade will keep expanding until there are no price differences between different locations for the limiting case of extremely durable goods. For goods with extreme durability and low transportation and transaction costs, the law of one market price will thus prevail.

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Åke E. Andersson and David Emanuel Andersson

Linear and linearized equations dominate economic and econometric modeling. The gains in terms of solubility and interpretation are considerable. However, important phenomena such as social interactions are then at best subject to informal treatments and at worst relegated to the class of supposedly irrelevant phenomena. This chapter explores the potential of non-linear dynamic theories and models of growth and development. We discuss examples of non-linear phenomena that are amenable to formal analysis such as the spread of infectious diseases, segregation processes and imitative behavior. Multiple equilibria occur frequently in non-linear models. One example is the Kaldor model of business cycles; another is Mees’s model of urban growth and decline. Analyzing the stability of models is central to the study of economic dynamics, where the dynamic stability of an equilibrium requires negative feedback. From the 1960s onward, structural stability became a recurrent catchphrase in dynamic analyses. In this chapter we claim that structural instability is a precondition for creativity in the development of new ideas in science and the arts. It is generally only possible to achieve a new stable equilibrium in conjunction with the completion of a creative process. Realistic dynamic economic models tend to contain a mixture of positive and negative feedback loops, leading to chaotic outcomes. One consequence is deterministic and stochastic processes become indistinguishable in practice. It is for this reason that Benoit Mandelbrot claimed that most “financial analyses” are spurious applications of stochastic theory to situations where fractal models would yield better pattern predictions.