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Defining Public Goods

An Institutional Approach to Community-Building and Negotiating Inter-Community Conflict

David J. O’Brien

Through the lens of an economist’s notion of public goods, David J. O’Brien analyzes the dual problems of declining communities and polarizing conflicts between metropolitan and rural communities. The author describes in detail how seemingly intractable community-level problems and inter-community conflicts have been substantially reduced by framing them in terms of the self-interest of a larger polity. O’Brien’s extensive community-level research experience in urban and rural communities that covers multiple historical periods, will appeal to inter-disciplinary social scientists, development specialists and persons looking for a hopeful, practical approach to solving the challenges of globalization.
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David J. O’Brien

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David J. O’Brien

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EU Cohesion Policy and Spatial Governance

Territorial, Social and Economic Challenges

Edited by Daniel Rauhut, Franziska Sielker and Alois Humer

Discussing the ongoing and future challenges of EU Cohesion Policy, this book critically addresses the economic, social and territorial challenges at the heart of the EU’s policy. It identifies the multifaceted and dynamic nature of the policy as well as the cohesions goal interlinkage with other policies and considers unresolved questions of strategic importance in territorial governance, urban and regional inequalities, and social aspects and wellbeing.
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Edited by Daniel Rauhut, Franziska Sielker and Alois Humer

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The Global Rise of the Modern Plug-In Electric Vehicle

Public Policy, Innovation and Strategy

John D. Graham

We may be standing on the precipice of a revolution in propulsion not seen since the internal combustion engine replaced the horse and buggy. The anticipated proliferation of electric cars will influence the daily lives of motorists, the economies of different countries and regions, urban air quality and global climate change. If you want to understand how quickly the transition is likely to occur, and the factors that will influence the predictions of the pace of the transition, this book will be an illuminating read.
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John D. Graham

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Edited by Graham Currie

Providing a comprehensive overview and analysis of the latest research in the growing field of public transport studies, this Handbook looks at the impact of urbanisation and the growth of mega-cities on public transport. Chapters examine the significant challenges facing the field that require new and original solutions, including congestion and environmental relief, and the social equity objectives that justify public transport in cities.
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Graham Currie

This Handbook of Public Transport Research aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest research in a growing field: the field of research on urban public transport. The quantity of public transport related research papers has doubled in the last nine years. Why? For two reasons. First, researchers have been increasingly inspired by the topic. It is an applied and practical topic affecting the quality of life of billions of people. It is also a field with significant challenges, seeking new and original solutions. These challenges range from the difficult interface of engineering, operations and human perceptions in user satisfaction and performance management, to the tricky balance between prudent financial management, operations planning and the social access goals making subsidies essential. These challenges require a multi-disciplinary perspective to wicked problems in Engineering, Planning, Psychology and Design, which is why the field is intellectually as well as tactically challenging. The foundation of many of these challenges is the conflicting congestion and environmental relief, and the social equity objectives that justify public transport in cities.

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Tao Liu and Avishai (Avi) Ceder

In this chapter we refer to the public transport (PT) operations planning process of a fixed-route system such as bus, rail and passenger ferries. This process commonly includes four basic components, divided into three different levels and usually performed in sequence: (1) network design; (2) timetable development; (3) vehicle scheduling; and (4) crew scheduling and rostering. The framework of this process is shown in Figure 18.1. It is preferable that all four activities be planned simultaneously in order to exploit system capability to the greatest extent and maximize system productivity and efficiency (Ceder 2016). However, since this integrated planning process is extremely cumbersome and complex, especially for medium and large-scale PT agencies, separated treatment is required for each component, with the outcome of one fed as an input into the next component. From the perspective of PT agencies, the highest cost items in the budget are vehicle capital and operating costs, driver wages and fringe benefits. Therefore, it is not surprising to learn that most of the commercially available PT scheduling software packages concentrate primarily on vehicle and crew scheduling activities. In the last fifty years, a considerable amount of effort has been invested in the computerization of the above four components in order to provide more efficient, controllable and responsive PT services. This chapter focuses on the third PT operations-planning component: vehicle scheduling, which is one of the problems at the operational-planning level. The PT vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) refers to the problem of determining the optimal allocation of vehicles to carry out all the trips of a given timetable. A chain of trips is assigned to each vehicle, although some of them may be deadheading (DH) or empty trips in order to attain optimality. The assignment of vehicle chains to garages should be determined in an efficient manner. The major objective of the PT VSP is to minimize fleet size or, correspondingly, to minimize the total cost comprised of fixed costs (acquisition, salaries, administration, etc.) and variable costs (maintenance, fuels, supplies, etc.). The number of feasible solutions to this problem is extremely high, especially in the case of multiple depots.