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Andris Piebalgs, Christopher Jones, Piero Carlo Dos Reis, Golnoush Soroush and Jean-Michel Glachant
Toby D. Couture, David Jacobs, Owen Zinaman and Jaquelin Cochran
Th is article presents a novel framework to help understand the evolution of renewable energy policy. In the process, it outlines a number of potential pathways to adapt to the rise of lowcost renewable energy technologies. For decades one of the primary aims of renewable energy policy has been to bridge the cost gap between conventional and renewable energy sources. With this cost gap narrowing and even disappearing in certain cases, the role of renewable energy policy is changing, away from traditional subsidies and toward providing a set of framework conditions that reduce key investment risks and provide investment certainty. Th is article provides a new lens through which to understand this transition: even in a world where renewable energy technologies are the least-cost sources of new power supply, they will still need a stable policy framework, one that supports project bankability, encourages investment in more system flexibility, and that establishes a clear long-term vision for the energy system.
Bernadette Fina, Hubert Fechner and Tara Esterl
Dorte Verner and Edinaldo Tebaldi
Refugees across the globe face serious food and livelihood constraints. This chapter presents and discusses characteristics of the refugee population who may benefit most from the introduction of climate-smart agriculture technologies in Lebanon and Jordan. This chapter shows that refugees are in all contexts among the poorest and their livelihoods are vulnerable. It also shows that frontier agriculture technologies (FAT) provides an opportunity to promote entrepreneurship and can improve well-being, including nutritional status for people that are less integrated into the labor market. FAT is sustainable and can leverage scarce resources, such as water (FAT use less water than traditional agriculture) and arable land (FAT does not require arable land), and promote economic activities that increase access to nutritious food, improve livelihoods, create jobs, promote entrepreneurship, enhance skills, and build social cohesion.
Larry A. Swatuk
How humans have used and misused water is the story of civilization itself. Water is paradoxical - it is ever-renewable but often scarce - and humanity's relationship to it is often contradictory. Although water is essential and non-substitutable it is often taken for granted. While it is finite and fugitive, humans flock to cities and expand agricultural enterprises as if the water will always be there in abundance. The challenges for water security are many and varied, and go to the heart of social organization. The chapter argues that seeing 'security' through different lenses reveals different sets of threats and vulnerabilities. Changing the referent object - the state, individuals, the environment - changes the context for action. Given water's central role in building political and economic power, 'water security' is generally tied to the security of the sovereign state. Actions taken in support of securing water for the state generally involve a confluence of political, economic and technical power. Over the last several decades, numerous attempts have been made to structure action in support of the greater social and environmental good. A variety of discursive framings have emerged to drive collective action. Yet, the legal and institutional frameworks for action remain state-centric, not only in terms of the primary beneficiary of water security, but in terms of the ontological framework for seeing security and insecurity. As shown in the chapter, limited formal space has been created for civil society participation, and for alternative perspectives and approaches to water security to emerge. The chapter concludes that despite numerous attempts to draw the world toward new ways of seeing water, deeply embedded interests, practices and processes ensure that efforts in support of 'water security' will continue to yield highly uneven outcomes: security for some, insecurity for many.