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Eero Suoninen

It is a common challenge in today’s families that children immerse themselves in media use and their parents try to motivate them to take responsibility for other important obligations. This chapter analyses the variation of the strategies parents and children are able to use when discussing the cessation or continuation of computer use. In order to identify the procedural features of the negotiations, the analysis focuses on one especially challenging negotiation process between a mother and her juvenile child. Both the parent’s and child’s participation are studied. The methodological approach combines the traditions of discourse analysis, frame analysis and conversation analysis. The aim is to examine the interaction progression as it unfolds turn by turn for the participants themselves. In order to analyse the variation in the participants’ strategies, the analysis explicates the positions that participants take and the frameworks they orient towards in the course of the interaction process.

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Towards an evolutionary complexity of endogenous innovation

The Economics of an Emergent System Property

Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter implements an evolutionary complexity approach that builds on the legacy of Schumpeter (1947) with the notions of: i) reactive decision-making; ii) multiple feedback; iii) innovation as the outcome of an emergent system process rather than individual action; iv); organized complexity and knowledge connectivity; iv) endogenous variety; and vi) non-ergodic path-dependent dynamics. Building on these bases, the chapter articulates an endogenous theory of innovation centred on analysis of the systemic conditions that make the creative reaction, and hence the introduction of innovations, possible.

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Sanna Tiilikainen and Ilkka Arminen

Digitalization, in the form of ubiquitous media and communication technologies at home, is forcing families with children to face an increasing number of choices regarding how they spend time together. The new combinations of people’s embodied presence and digital worlds are altering family interactions and collective family time in the home, including the socialization of children. This chapter investigates the manifestations of these new ways of being together under the social contract the authors call ‘together individually’. According to this contract, joint social time at home is complemented with ICT and digital content by mutual consent. Using selected instances recorded from videotaped family interactions involving the use of ICT at home, the authors analyse the new ways of spending time together individually and the ways in which children are being socialized according to this contract.

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Cristiano Antonelli

Technological congruence is an emergent system property defined by the match between the relative size of output elasticity and the relative abundance and cost of inputs in local factor markets. With given total costs, output is larger the larger is the output elasticity of the cheapest input. Technological congruence is a powerful tool that helps in grasping the economic complexity of technological change with respect to determinants of the direction of technological change and its effects in terms of growth accounting and specialization, both at the firm and the system level. Its appreciation stems directly from advances in the economics of innovation in understanding the endogenous determinants of the introduction and diffusion of directed technological changes. Technological congruence is most relevant to influence the actual levels of total factor productivity of new technologies and, consequently, to shape the competitive advance of firms and countries.

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Eerik Mantere and Sanna Raudaskoski

In this chapter, a video-recorded mundane conversation between a 12-year-old daughter and her mother, who is simultaneously using a smartphone, is analysed in detail. The authors discovered that the overlapping use of a smartphone challenges the common norms of request and response, and in addition produces difficulties in interpretation of the present level of agreement. The authors introduce the term ‘sticky media device’ to define these difficulties and the divided attention between the interlocutor and the device. Attention stuck to the ‘sticky’ smartphone makes responses to the interlocutor slow, hesitant and ambiguous. According to the case analysed, it is challenging for the daughter to ‘unstick’ her mother’s attention from the device, which readily returns to the device, even when the daughter momentarily gains it. This case study raises the question of whether the phenomenon of the sticky media device, by confusing the traditional norms of conversation, can affect the way children learn the common norms of interaction.

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Standing on the shoulders of giants

The Economics of an Emergent System Property

Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter highlights the limits of current approaches to the economics of innovation. It also stresses their role in articulating a theory of innovation as an endogenous process that relies upon the characteristics of the system in which the response of firms to unexpected mismatches in both labour and factor markets takes place. The role of Marshallian contributions to Schumpeterian thinking is stressed.

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Susan Danby

This chapter discusses theoretical and methodological understandings when undertaking research that explores family interactions in relation to digital media use and issues, and opportunities and constraints for technological engagement, socialization and participation in family life. Specific attention is directed to those studies that explore children’s participation in digital technologies through the theoretical lenses of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. These approaches examine in fine detail the participants’ moment-by-moment talk and actions (including multimodal actions) as they engage with each other and with digital media. The chapter explores methodological considerations when investigating family interactions in digital media contexts, and briefly discusses the ethical considerations of undertaking research involving children in private and home contexts, and using video-recording data of family interactions with digital media. The chapter concludes with challenges and opportunities for social interaction research that involve family interactions around digital media.

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Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter accommodates in the Schumpeterian frame of the creative response recent advances in the economics of innovation, technological change and knowledge to articulate a comprehensive model of Schumpeterian growth. Schumpeterian rivalry in product markets engenders mismatches in product markets and the consequent flows of R & D expenditures. Knowledge appropriability declines over time so that additional knowledge piles up, increasing the stock of public knowledge. Because of knowledge indivisibility – articulated in knowledge complementarity, exhaustibility, cumulability and transient appropriability – knowledge externalities are diachronic. Diachronic externalities stemming from the stock of public knowledge favour the generation of new technological knowledge, the search for technological congruence and the consequent reduction in the cost of knowledge. The secular decline in the cost of technological knowledge induces the creative reaction of firms, the search for higher levels of technological congruence and the consequent introduction of biased technological changes that augment the output elasticity of knowledge as an input. Knowledge cumulability and induced technological change account for the secular trend towards the knowledge economy.

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Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter elaborates a Schumpeterian version of the H–O model (S–H–O) based on the hypothesis that technological change is endogenous and biased towards the most intensive use of production factors that are locally most abundant in comparative terms. In the standard H–O model, the differences between trading partners in the levels of the output elasticity of inputs and technological change are exogenous. The (S–H–O) model rests on the Schumpeterian notion of the creative response of firms which, caught in out-of-equilibrium conditions by the changing conditions of both factor and product markets, try to react by introducing biased technological changes directed towards the most intensive use of inputs that are locally most abundant in relative terms. The actual introduction of technological innovations, however, will depend on the availability of appropriate knowledge externalities. According to this framework, countries exposed to the out-of-equilibrium conditions engendered by enhanced globalization react with the introduction of new technologies biased towards the intensive use of technological knowledge as the most abundant and specific input. Technological knowledge in fact is characterized by its strong collective and systemic character that limits its dissemination and use outside its context of origin.

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REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

Law and Practice

Jeffrey Belson

A certification mark is underpinned by the proprietor’s regulations or standards, conformity to which is a sine qua non for legitimate use and legal protection of the mark. Therefore, the development and implementation of regulations and standards is of major consequence for certification mark owners, particularly when their marks are used for regulatory purposes. This chapter identifies the international frameworks for technical standard-setting. Included is an outline of the principles behind mutual recognition agreements for recognition of product conformity assessment procedures, of which certification is but a part. In addition, the mechanisms promoting common or ‘harmonized’ standards for products are described in light of their declared purpose of eliminating unnecessary technical barriers to trade. Key words: certification mark; collective mark; regulation; standard