The resource curse literature frequently mentions Norway as a rare case of successful governance among oil exporters. Three major prosecuted cases involving bribery of foreign public officials show that international pressure and conventions, as well as a proactive approach among domestic law enforcement, is forcing Norwegian firms to adapt to a new anti-corruption regime. While firms continue to meet extortionate demands for illegal payments, bribery has become far riskier and managers know they can face personal liability. Ongoing evaluation of Norway’s anti-corruption commitments should expand to include an assessment of its foreign policy objectives. Keywords: Norway, petroleum exports, foreign bribery, corruption, law enforcement, illegal payments
Birthe Eriksen and Tina Søreide
Mary Wanjiru Kinoti, Moses Kibe Kihiko and Thomas M. Cooney
While female entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial teams are now commonly studied, little work has been undertaken in women’s entrepreneurial teams in developing countries. This study analyses the impact of the Women Enterprise Fund, which was established by the Kenyan government to address the issue of poverty and unemployment amongst the country’s female population. To ensure that the government funds maximized the number of women that participated in the initiative, a loan was offered to teams (or groups) of at least ten women and therefore the programme became known as the Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) initiative. The research found that illiteracy among many GLETs resulted in difficulties with the loan application process, the repayment of the loan through the bank, and with proper record keeping. The research also found that the government should finance women’s group assets rather than giving money to provide incentives, and that they should reduce the tax and interest rate for women and encourage greater levels of export activity. The GLETs also require business mentors who can work closely with them to implement what they have learned in training. The chapter additionally offers some thoughts on how the findings from this research can provide insights into women’s entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial teams internationally.
Why are some individuals willing to pursue opportunities and others aren’t? The role of individual values
Francisco Liñán and Agnieszka Kurczewska
In this chapter the authors argue that personal values influence motivation and intention to exploit business ideas. The aim is to investigate which values direct individuals willing to start up their ventures out of an opportunity, compared to those who would start their venture out of necessity. To address this aim, the authors combine the literature on entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity-driven entrepreneurship with psychological knowledge on individual values. By applying Schwartz’s theory of personal values on a sample of 2974 adults from Spain, the authors examine how values organized along two bipolar dimensions – openness versus conservation and self-enhancement versus self-transcendence – influence the perceived likelihood of an individual entering entrepreneurship ‘to take advantage of an opportunity’ or ‘out of necessity’. The study indicates that openness to change and self-enhancement encourage opportunity-driven entrepreneurship, while conservation and self-transcendence stimulate necessity-based entrepreneurship. The study also confirms that the start-up intention is mostly connected with exploiting a potential opportunity. Entrepreneurial intention mediates the relationship from the motivational antecedents to the opportunity motives. The study’s contribution is a new, value-based insight into the sources of two classes of entrepreneurship. By identifying the value priorities held by individuals who exploit opportunities, the chapter advances the understanding of value-laden entrepreneurial intentions leading to entrepreneurial behaviours.
Stephanie Schoss, René Mauer and Malte Brettel
There is a growing body of research that focuses on dispositional personality–related characteristics of founding team members as leading indicators of new venture success. For empirical analysis in this research, 16 personality-related characteristics were selected relevant to entrepreneurship literature and practice, and their importance examined with regard to the composition of entrepreneurial teams. The research setting consisted of a start-up simulation comprising 1200 students with backgrounds in engineering and business who were randomly assigned to teams of five. The method of cluster analysis served to develop a better understanding of which personality characteristics are most important to team success and how the traits cluster together to form specific team types. Besides well-studied characteristics like the need for achievement, less prominent variables like empathy and passion also appear among the personality traits that are most significant for entrepreneurial success. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that balanced individuals who simultaneously show high levels of multiple traits appear more often in unsuccessful teams, while individuals with fewer but more strongly developed traits are to be found in successful teams. Additionally, passion and need for achievement seem to be closely clustered traits, but are less likely to be present in individuals who rate high on empathy and conflict management skills. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for researchers and actionable recommendations for practitioners.
Frédérique Six and Hans Van Ees
Trust plays a role in all relations within regulatory regimes, as Six and Verhoest (this volume) show in their literature review. They conclude that, among others, the dynamics of processes for trust building and repair are under studied. In this chapter we begin to address this gap. In a double case study, we reconstruct and analyse the interaction process between a public regulator (water board in charge of licensing and enforcement for water management) and public regulatee (local authority developing new housing district). Even though (dis)trust was not often explicitly mentioned, processes of trust building and repair provide a fruitful conceptual lens through which we can understand and explain what happens. Our micro-level study shows how trust is built and what happens after trouble occurs and conflict erupts. We tentatively formulate propositions on processes of trust building and repair at individual and organizational level.
Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Jennifer Jacquet and Allison Witter
Corruption risks in fisheries affect marine environments, global food security, national economies and local livelihoods in coastal communities. Undermining management goals and eroding local incentives for responsible resource stewardship, corrupt fisheries practices are difficult to address. A raft of measures for improving oversight and management control have been proposed, but gaps in their implementation and loopholes in even the best monitoring systems mean it is difficult to address all types of corruption threatening fish stocks. Solutions may lie in strengthening fisher participation in management to improve compliance and legitimacy at local levels. Keywords: Marine fisheries, corruption, resource stewardship, local livelihoods, commodity chains, monitoring systems