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Write a compelling job application

Establishing and Sustaining a Successful Career in the Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities

Iain Hay

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Susan Cartwright

The chapter examines the issue of workplace health and well-being. It explains how human capital reporting standards may help HR functions function account for the value of their employees and their collective knowledge, skills, abilities and capacity to develop and innovate. It argues that we need to broaden the meaning of well-being beyond its traditional and legislative concerns with health status from a medical perspective, and include job demands, control, role clarity, security, pay and equity, and wider factors such as co-workers, HR practices, and aspects of the workplace environment more generally. It examines the evidence from systematic reviews of flexible working to reveal a series of paradoxes facing HRM practitioners and examines some of the ways in which organisations can prevent and address the occurrence of ill health and promote health, well-being and performance. It addresses questions about responsibilities for this, and the choice of processes to monitor, address and modify workplace policies, practices and job characteristics.

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Whither justice?

Proposals, Arguments and Justification

Olivier Godard

Thinking of justice implies submitting intuition to the tests of reason. In the wake of Rawls’s ideas, conceptions of justice should stem from the conditions of social cooperation, but this foundation is contested. Moral and political constructs offer different answers, the first considering the rights and duties of abstract equal individuals, while the latter recognize the importance of the process of developing social norms by political communities. The field is structured by basic distinctions between commutative, corrective and distributive justices, but also between procedural and consequentialist approaches, or between local and global justice. In practice, the application of justice norms depends on social values and situations, but also on the availability of information. This dependence is illustrated by the schematic description of the different ways of approaching one same basic distributive situation: sharing a cake between children. In the second section of the chapter, two main theories are presented to underline the scope of the theoretical field and to reveal certain interesting results for the question of climate change: on the one hand, Rawls’s theory delimited by the circumstances of justice and based on an imaginary deliberation under the ‘veil of ignorance’; on the other hand, the type of utilitarianism practiced by economists. The circumstances of justice apply partially to climate change, since the global climate, like natural conditions in general, is not a good, both in the sense of Rawls and in the sense of economists. Although economic theory generally supports the idea that efficiency and equity can be separated, this is not the case for climate change, which results from decentralized production of global conditions having a public good dimension.

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Helen Shipton, Veronica Lin, Karin Sanders and Huadong Yang

The chapter examines the relationship between innovation and HRM, through the literature on recognising, leveraging and releasing the creative and innovative behaviours of employees across specialisms, and across levels of the hierarchy. It develops a four-stage conceptualisation of innovation: problem identification; idea generation; idea evaluation; and implementation. It identifies two areas that would benefit from more focused research. First, distinguishing between environments where creativity and innovation is overtly required, as opposed to job roles where creative outcomes, while valuable, are not expressly called for as part of the job. Second, examining the effect that HRM has on individual creativity (idea generation) and the more collective process of innovation implementation. It examines the process of bottom-up emergence, and the ways in which HRM can support and underpin employees’ efforts not just to generate ideas, but also to work with others to foster their implementation.

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Wayne F. Cascio, John W. Boudreau and Allan H. Church

The chapter applies a risk optimisation lens and reframes talent management systems in ways that hedge risk and uncertainty. It uses the notion of human capital risk – uncertainty arising from changes in a wide variety of workforce and people-management issues that affect a company’s ability to meet its strategic and operating objectives. It examines the use of future scenarios to alleviate risks, and the concept of potential. It highlights two implications for practice: what this means for measuring candidate “potential”; and what the implications are for the ownership rights and decision accountability for talent development. It uses a Leadership Potential framework to demonstrate how organisations might take a more comprehensive and holistic view to framing the identification and prediction of future leadership success. It calls for four developments: improved HR information/talent management systems, databases, and managerial tools for planning different staffing scenarios and downstream implications; changes in the mindsets of leaders, the culture of organisations, reward systems, accountability; changes in our concepts of what talent management and succession planning are supposed to be about; and changes in the capabilities of HR professionals.

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Farida Shaheed

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Think about academic leadership positions

Establishing and Sustaining a Successful Career in the Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities

Iain Hay

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Teach well

Establishing and Sustaining a Successful Career in the Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities

Iain Hay

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Susan Watson

Mystery is at the core of corporate law. The first question in corporate law is also the last: what is a company? It is a question that the legal philosopher HLA Hart (1983, 23) would prefer we did not ask, but given the centrality of companies to modern life, we cannot help ourselves as long as the fundamental issue of their essential nature remains contested. This chapter uses a historical lens in an attempt to identify what exactly a company is. It concludes that the modern company is a legal person that is an entity created by statute comprising a fund. The chapter shows that the modern form of the company as separate from shareholders is a consequence of default limited liability being granted in the mid-nineteenth century, although its consequences and benefits were not fully realized until later in the century. This analysis focuses on the English story but is of wider interest because the development of the modern business corporation followed a broadly parallel path in most jurisdictions.

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Tax design of traditional BTAs

Fostering Environmental Protection

Alice Pirlot

This chapter highlights BTAs’ distinguishing features in comparison to other trade-related measures. As their name indicates, BTAs are border tax adjustments. Each concept (‘border’; ‘tax’; ‘adjustment’) informs the essence of BTAs (Section 1). Aside from this conceptual definition, countries’ practices also permit BTAs to be understood in terms of tax design, which is crucial for the development of environmental BTAs. Traditional models of BTAs include EU VAT and excise duties systems as well as US sales taxes (Section 2). Keywords: VAT; excise duties; retail sales taxes; GATT 1968 Report; OECD 1970 Report