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Yanbi Hong and Yandong Zhao

The chapter provides a critical account of the constantly evolving concept of ‘educational inequality’, together with its impact on the provision and outcomes of education. It concludes that educational policies and measures alone cannot eliminate educational inequality, and calls for greater attention to be paid to equality of social resources generally.

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Qing Tian, Yu Huang, Gerald A. McBeath and Jenifer Huang McBeath

The chapter provides an account of the development of environmental education in schools and in higher education. Environmental degradation is now a matter for concern in China, especially given the country’s rapid economic growth. The chapter argues that environmental education has benefited from the traditional Chinese concept of social learning or tianren heyi, which regards humanity as an integral part of nature. It concludes that sustainable development should continue to see greater government investment in environmental education and co-operation with non-governmental organizations.

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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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W. John Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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W. John Morgan

The chapter provides an analysis of the key features of Maoist ideology and of related literature. It considers how Mao’s ultra-left social, cultural and educational ideology influenced the development of education in modern China. This is a fundamentally important historical issue and the chapter considers the considerable literature devoted to it. It shows that the transition in Chinese education from egalitarian ideology to public policy is important in ways other than for educational practice specifically.

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Muchu Zhang and Ruth Hayhoe

The chapter provides a detailed historical analysis of the cultural and global influences on the modernization of China’s basic education, higher education and teacher education. It concludes that Chinese education has grown from its cultural roots, and should explain the educational dimensions of the Confucian heritage to a world that has become increasingly interested in its language, culture and society.

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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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John Chi-Kin Lee and Huan Song

The chapter provides a detailed account of primary education in China. It shows that the Chinese government’s enhanced financial investments and centralized curriculum reforms have improved the quality of provision and access to primary education significantly. However, disparity in terms of resources provision and teacher quality between schools in urban and rural areas remains a persistent cause for concern.

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Peggy A. Kong, Xiaoran Yu and Xia Zhao

The chapter considers the role of paid private tutoring or ‘shadow education’ in relation to the provision of the mainstream education system. It raises concerns about variability in the access to and the quality of private tutoring across the country, and calls for policy interventions to address ethical concerns and allegations of corruption among teachers participating in ‘shadow education’. It shows also the tension between individual aspirations in education on the one hand, and social provision on the other.

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Su Wang

The chapter provides a detailed description of the latest curriculum change in science, technology and mathematics education in both formal and non-formal settings. It concludes with observations on the need to improve efficiency and coherence in national planning, in the consistency of curriculum standards and in the quality of teachers.