The term walkability relates to people’s use of public spaces, such as streets, squares, green parks and plazas. This chapter discusses some of the empirical tools and methods applied by urban designers and planners to determine walkability, which is a fundamental aspect of sustainable cities. The focus is on empirical, substantive methods allowing to study how the city is deriving information from direct observation. Three groups of methods are discussed, namely: (1) predominantly observational methods which look at use of an area; (2) methods which ask people about how they use an area, such as interviews; and (3) methods which examine the existing built form and infrastructure provision of an area. As none of the described methods is holistic in and of themselves, the chapter encourages users to combine their application to enable a more complete picture of the walkability of an area.
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Laura Stocker and Gary Burke
The chapter presents a methodological framework enhancing the governance of sustainability and climate change. Four domains are considered important. (1) knowledge, including science, lay, managerial and indigenous knowledges; (2) governance, including decision-makers, policy-makers and stakeholders; (3) the constituency, including community and the private sector; (4) management, including implementation strategies and monitoring regimes. Legitimacy is the key emergent issue in the framework. It relates to knowledge about sustainability and climate change; making significant governance decisions around sustainability and climate change; the means by which those decisions are implemented and managed; and the policy process as conferred by the policy-takers, the constituents. Legitimacy is conferred as a result of mutual conversation among the above four domains. Conferral results when: governance meets the criteria of efficacy and accountability; knowledge – of adequacy and cogency; implementation establishes appropriate standards and professional practice; and constituency accepts that knowledge and actions meet criteria of credibility and salience.
Giovanni Allegretti and Janette Hartz-Karp
Participatory budgeting, which proliferated across the globe to over 3,000 local governments and some supra-municipalities, helps to improve sustainability, and could make a greater contribution in the future. It enables local people to co-decide the city’s or region’s budget, which is an issue of importance to them. Examples show that when local people allocate budgets, governance becomes more inclusive and empowered; social justice is promoted; more sustainable outcomes are achieved; and a more holistic approach to sustainable planning is enabled. It is one of the few empowered deliberative participation initiatives which has achieved continuity over time and has strengthened resilience.
Dora Marinova, Vladislav Todorov, Andrey Blinov and Evgeny Safonov
Economics is deeply rooted in social sciences and needs to reclaim its roots in ethics and philosophy. An examination of its history shows that key economics issues have always been of moral and ethical nature and its methodologies directly linked to human and societal objectives. Ethical economics is needed to urgently respond to the priorities of climate change and facilitate a transition to sustainability. The 20th-century tools are not adequate for the sustainability challenges. New developments associated with information, education, innovation, neo-financing and spirituality offer new resources and understanding to economics. Three conceptual and three operational principles are presented as a way in which ethical stances can translate into practical solutions and form the basis of policy development, decision-making and planning. An ethics matrix is put forward for evaluating any existing or proposed economic tools or initiatives, with collaborative consumption put to the test as an example.
Human intelligence is the basis for responding to changing and challenging conditions over time. However, the complex societies we have created seem to prohibit the adequate use of individual cognitive capacities to ensure our collective sustainability. This chapter proposes ways to collaboratively engage diverse people's rational and arational capacities (such as empathy and intuition) with big-picture knowledge and perspectives to generate a more comprehensive form of intelligence – co-intelligence or public wisdom. Seven principles, related to making public judgement wiser are explained, namely: long-term, systemic, inclusive, possibility oriented, empowering, universal, and meaningful. They allow public wisdom to be generated by engaging many people in well-designed, iteratively convened multi-modal conversations which can make reality more comprehensible to all involved with communities and countries learning from how their outcomes can impact the real world. If embedded in cultures and social systems, such activities can have significant impact on sustainability.
Rangelands, defined as arid and semi-arid grasslands, scrublands and tundra, make up approximately 50 percent of the earth’s terrestrial surfaces. Historically the lack of rain and its irregularity meant they were used for nomadic grazing. Today due to a range of factors, including grazing pressure, most rangelands are significantly degraded. At the same time, many have become major mineral and energy production centres, making them economic engines of international significance. Much of the wealth, however, is exported to urban areas and little is invested into restoring the land from which it was generated. Based on the Australian experience, this chapter identifies ten emergent characteristics or bespoke methodologies common, to varying degrees, across a number of rangeland restoration programmes that are design based and focus on creating new rangeland systems, rather than planning-based interventions seeking to achieve agreed goals.
Janette Hartz-Karp and Leen Gorissen
A transition to sustainability requires radical change in our cultures, ways of organizing and practices. Our value regime needs to shift from exploitation to regeneration, from a profit focus to principles of interdependence, cooperation and partnership. The chapter examines how transition initiatives can assist in this journey. Two different initiatives are presented: one instigated mostly bottom-up by the grassroots in Europe; and one mostly top-down by governance in Australia. Irrespective of the difference in their approach, both initiatives arrived at the same conclusion, namely the need for more mutual government and public support, involving changes in roles for government officials and citizens that foster value shifts, increase collective agency and enhance distributed leadership.
Current methods of making public decisions and governance do not favour sustainability. Furthermore, democracies regularly fail to make long-term decisions in the interests of all humankind, let alone other living beings and future generations. To ensure long-term public interests are protected, the public itself needs to be engaged, provided with good information, and, most importantly, authentically represented. The chapter outlines sortition as a form of self-government and a way to establish representative bodies which deliberate over a particular issue in order to deliver better decisions. Sortition refers to the use of random selection (or scientific sampling) of people to perform a particular public function and it can take the form of agenda councils, interest panels, review panels, policy juries, rules, and oversight councils, and can be implemented at a local, state, national, or global level.
Jenny Pope and Svetla Petrova
Sustainability assessment has emerged as a distinct form of impact assessment. It is a process which commences before an action is taken in order to inform decision-makers about the potential future consequences of such development and elicit appropriate responses. Sustainability assessment retains many characteristics of the techno-rational roots of impact assessment as a governance mechanism. This chapter puts forward two emerging methodological approaches which have the potential to overcome some of the limitations of the currently prevailing practice and greatly strengthen the application of sustainability assessment as a governance mechanism for sustainability. They are: systems analysis and deliberative approaches, to be applied within an eight-step process, covering: decision to conduct a sustainability assessment; identification of the desired outcome and hence the decision question; establishment of sustainability goals and criteria; identification of alternatives and option to achieve the outcome; prediction and evaluation of the impacts of each alternative; selection and enhancement of the preferred option; approval decision and announcement; and implementation, monitoring and follow-up.
Diana Bogueva, Talia Raphaely, Dora Marinova and Mira Marinova
Using the example of excessive meat consumption, this chapter outlines the need for social marketing to promote behavioural changes for the common good. It develops a new approach, methodology and model termed sustainability social marketing tailored towards current priorities associated with climate change, human health and ecological well-being. The meat consumption problem is explained as an example of existing ample scientific evidence about the environmental and health co-benefits of reduction in which social marketing can encourage and trigger positive changes. A new 4S (sustainability, strength, self-confidence and sharing) marketing mix is proposed to be used to influence the social acceptability of a transition towards sustainability, including reduction in meat consumption.