This chapter introduces constructionism as a guiding paradigm in tourism research, where reality and knowledge are viewed as constructions, generated through interaction and interpretation. It can help in critiquing social discourses, explaining the process of participants’ knowledge creation, and guiding research that places participants and their experiences as central.
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Critical inquiry, while relatively new to tourism studies, presents a powerful opportunity to address the negative impacts of tourism around the world. It offers the chance to move beyond describing the good, bad and ugly of tourism to understanding (and transforming) the ideological structures and power inequalities upon which it is often based.
Although ethical issues and challenges in research are numerous, the tourism literature, with the exception of some critical studies, has been mostly silent on this topic. This chapter sets out five core ethical principles, a set of research decisions and related ethical dilemmas that tourism researchers should address, and offers resources for responding to these challenges.
Bill J. Gregorash
This chapter introduces the reader to photo-elicitation and variations that can be used as a research methodology useful for studies that explore understandings with consumers in hospitality and tourism. Included is the personal experience of the author, who used photo-elicitation to research how memories are made within gastronomic events.
Sandhiya Goolaup and Cecilia Solér
This chapter provides guidance for tourism researchers on how to conduct phenomenological research. Phenomenology is a suitable method to address and understand tourists’ experience. The chapter contests the phenomenological distinction between Husserlian and Heideggerian that has primarily been made in tourism research, and instead suggests a merger between these two, known as existential-phenomenology. It starts by providing an overview of the origins of the phenomenological method as well as the different phenomenological approaches used in tourism research. Emphasis is also put on how existential-phenomenological interviews are conducted and how the data can be interpreted. The chapter ends by using an illustrative case to show how the existential-phenomenological approach adds value to prior knowledge by focusing on variations in individual meanings of the phenomenon under study.
True experimentation, where an independent variable is altered to determine the effects on the dependent variable(s), is not a common research method for tourism research. While not applicable to most situations, it can be a valuable technique to better understand relationships and assign causation. Many key considerations can guide the successful use of experiments in tourism. Experimentation requires control and manipulated subjects, randomly assigned to the different conditions, to determine the impacts of the manipulation. To better assess the changes, only one factor should be altered at a time, and statistical tests that do not selectively leave out certain data should be employed. Ten possible errors can impact on the results of the experiment, so these need to be minimized through the experimental design chosen. Experiments can be more involved than other methods of tourism research, but when used in the right situations, they can be powerful tools in the researcher’s toolbox.
Martin Trandberg Jensen
This chapter addresses the analytic prospects of audio methods in tourism research. It grows out of a critique of the reliance on textual modes of expression in research, and suggests that sensuous tourism and hospitality scholarship can be strengthened by drawing upon emergent research on soundscapes. Subsequently, the chapter makes three contributions. Firstly, it suggests that the emergence of non-representational theories will inform the development of experimental and multimodal tourism and hospitality research. Secondly, through ethnographic examples the chapter exemplifies how sonic research unfolds in practice, and discusses the analytic insights that come with such engagement with the field. Finally, growing out of this discussion, the chapter outlines a heuristic ‘sonic manifesto’ that supports the application and development of sonic research in future tourism and hospitality research.
in this chapter, archival Research is presented as an alternative research strategy in qualitative tourism and hospitality research. Its theoretical underpinnings are highlighted; common pitfalls, and tools to avoid these, are presented; and a case study provides a practical research setting. Finally, its rigour and potential methodological contribution are shown.
Adopting a digital image processing method, specifically the colour histogram method, implemented in the red_green_blue (RGB) colour space segments of digital images, this chapter demonstrates an experiment of colour analysis on a destination’s promotional images, and the results visually display the destination’s colour presentation in a histogram format.
C. Michael Hall
Fieldwork for tourism research is discussed in the context of the relationship between travel and undertaking fieldwork and their different stages. Seven different types of interrelated spaces of fieldwork are identified: temporal space, physical space, regulatory/political space, ethical space, social space and theoretical/methodological space.