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The aim of this ending chapter is to present a structured summary of the previous chapters and tie them together through lingering on some cross-chapter themes and contributions in view of the aims of the book. Some of the main themes in this book at macro-level will moreover be tied into a previous book of mine 20 years back (as of April 2018) on the rise of intellectual capitalism and the economics and management of IP at micro-level. The chapter will end with a final plea for transnational technology and innovation governance in light of the crucial roles of new technologies and innovations and for global challenges and welfare. The general aim of this book has been to present a research-based analysis of the linkages between R & D, patents, innovations, growth and welfare and thereby increase our knowledge about how R & D of new technologies and innovations can contribute to growth and ultimately to welfare in society. A corollary aim has then been to focus specifically on patents and their linkages since patent and IP issues have been somewhat disconnected in general from R & D, innovations and economic growth in studies and debate of the latter. A subsidiary aim has been to clarify and offer a number of key concepts, distinctions and models in an attempt to contribute to a professional language in the innovation policy and management area. A final aim of the book has been to contribute to research in the innovation and IP area by offering some answers to common research questions as well as offering methods and suggestions for further IP policy research.
Xue Han and Jorge Niosi
Xue Han and Jorge Niosi
Chapter 2 extracts the key points of the solar PV sectors in terms of industrial performance, technologies and regulations. This chapter acts as the foundation for understanding further specific studies in the following chapter.
Sander Faber and Marina van Geenhuizen
This chapter investigates adoption of medical technology in the form of eHealth solutions in hospitals. A model of organizational eHealth adoption is developed and empirically explored using a survey among hospitals in cities in the Netherlands and structural equation modelling (SEM). Technology adoption is seen as a process in different stages, revealing a high level of interest (about 60 per cent of hospitals) but very limited actual adoption (ranging from 6 per cent to 23 per cent). Furthermore, adoption levels tend to be higher in larger cities, and this is confirmed by significant direct influence of urban size on eHealth adoption. Other important factors tend to be organizational readiness and top management of hospitals, but these are not affected by urban size. The results leave the question open as to what makes hospitals in large cities more often adopt new technology if this is not mediated by hospital size and other organizational characteristics.
This chapter investigates innovation in urban passenger transport and clarifies how cities play a leading role. By focusing on liveability, intelligent systems management and new mobility, single innovations are discussed and the results summarized in a matrix. The most important ‘initiators’ are city governments, citizen groups, public transport authorities and universities, with the enterprise world somewhat lagging until recently. On the physical side, larger cities create more inventions and high density plays a role in feasibility of public transport. Universities are important, as is a historical city centre. On the social side, a well-educated population wishing to continue living in the city enhances innovation, but in some developing countries the electorate which does not own cars appears to be important. Also helpful are city governments acting on openness and trust and active political leaders. Furthermore, the early adopting cities often faced a crisis in mobility or failure of projects.
Pieter E. Stek
This chapter presents a bibliometric study identifying clusters (cities) that are ‘champions’ in acceleration of invention in solar photovoltaics (PV), using patent analysis. The number of inventions has increased rapidly in the past decades, particularly since 2003. In this process, leading clusters change, in part, over time. Some have held their position since 2000 – Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul and Taipei in East Asia, and San Jose in the US – whereas most high-performing clusters in the US have somewhat lost their position, for example Los Angeles. Over time, there is an increased spread of inventive performance in PV technology across the world. To improve understanding of these patterns, a regression model has been estimated. Using data from 110 clusters, it appears that agglomeration factors and relational factors are equally influential, and they also tend to reinforce each other. Leadership tends to follow from a delicate balance between the size of the cluster and size/diversity of its networks.
Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory
Chapter 6 concludes the book by summarising the main ideas and pointing to the main issues that should be further examined in this era of digital globalisation spurred by the fourth industrial revolution. One issue is the generalisation of the specific case of comprehensive industrial policy as that implemented in the Emilia-Romagna region. Another issue regards privacy and monopoly power in the new industrial system.
Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory
Chapter 5 puts together the analysis carried out in previous chapters to discuss the industrial policy implications of the fourth industrial revolution. The main idea is that manufacturing revolutions call for comprehensive industrial policy. A focus is made on industrial policy at the regional level, and it is shown, through the experience of the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy, that regions have a role to play in designing and implementing comprehensive industrial policies effective in preparing their industries and population for the industrial revolution. It is argued that in times of important change the objective of industrial policy should be resilience, namely the capacity of the economy and the society to adapt.
Freek Kuipéri, Marina van Geenhuizen and Jan Anne Annema
This chapter explores important uncertainties faced by cities in designing a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs), and it provides important ingredients for adaptive policy making. Uncertainty stems from future EV demand, new/improved technology concerning batteries, charging equipment and alternative fuel, and integration of EV batteries as a storage medium in smart energy systems. The chapter illustrates these uncertainties using scenario-analysis of demand for charging infrastructure, including the level of city quarters. Furthermore, large cities in the Netherlands tend to be slightly more ambitious with regard to EV policy than smaller cities, but there may be differences between large cities in different countries, for example Stockholm and Amsterdam. The chapter closes by presenting an adaptive policy making framework, given the uncertainty in national policies impacting on demand for EV cars, in integrating EVs in larger systems of renewable energy, and in arrangements concerning exploitation of charging stations.