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Frédéric Lemieux and Chantal Perras
Jeffrey Fagan, Tom R. Tyler and Tracey L. Meares
Modern policing in the US has embraced the notion of proactivity, featuring frequent police interdictions of citizens animated by broad indicia of imminent crime. Street stops of pedestrians, often employing ‘stop and frisk’tactics, are central to this strategy. This paper assess the emotional aftermath of widespread use of these tactics, focusing on how exposure to street stops shapes the attitudes of citizens toward law and legal actors. Our central concern is the effects of widespread and often aggressive stops on the emotional well-being of those stopped, as well as public trust and confidence in the police in the communities where stop and frisk rates are highest. We begin with a review of the range of potentially adverse reactions or harms that SQF or ‘street’policing may produce. We next link those harms to a broader set of normative concerns that connect dignity, harm and legitimacy. In the third section, we review the evidence that connects citizen views of police –as well as their experience with police – to their perceptions of the legitimacy of the police and criminal legal institutions generally. In that same section, we review the evidence that links those perceptions to how citizens behave with respect to law, and identify the consequences of adverse reactions of citizens to harsh forms of street policing. In the fourth section, we discuss alternative frameworks for thinking about the regulation and control of the new policing, a discussion that has longstanding roots in a broader dialogue about the management of police discretion. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these tactics for development of accurate intelligence about crime patterns and offenders. The low rates of arrest or seizure of weapons or contraband in stop and frisk encounters suggest that proactive policing may divert police attention from the realities of crime and offenders, while eroding the incentives of citizens to assist police in developing useful knowledge to prevent crime and bring offenders to justice.
Information sharing among security agencies in the EU and beyond has rapidly grown in importance due to the development of information and communication technology and the reaction to security threats mostly related to new forms of terrorism that have emerged since the late 1990s. The paper shows that enhanced information sharing has produced tensions between security interests and data protection. The EU is trying to facilitate information sharing and to force police agencies to apply the principle of availability, establishing the rule that police agencies should share information with agencies from other EU Member States in the same way as with agencies from their own country. However, the paper shows that the strategy to force information sharing by legal rules does not sufficiently take into account the role of trust as a prerequisite for the effective exchange of police information.