Yanagiya Machinery Co. Ltd was initially involved in processing local fish to steamed fish paste, as one of the small regional enterprises in Japanese traditional craft-like industries, over 100 years ago. However, they have recently grown to be a medium-sized enterprise with over 150 employees and annual sales of over 4 billion yen. Their current business areas are designing, manufacturing and selling machines for producing processed foods – mainly steamed fish paste. Nowadays, they are developing and exporting machines for a variety of manufacturing needs within the processed foods industry. This chapter describes how they have shifted their operations to such a growing market domain and how they have developed original technologies with competitive competence. Their experience of transforming the business could be instructive to other regional small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in declining manufacturing industries.
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Implications for Regions and Industries
Makoto Hirano, Mitsuhiro Kurashige and Kiyonori Sakakibara
Brenda S. A. Yeoh, Shirlena Huang and Theodora Lam
Transnational migration within and out of Asia is one of the main drivers of contemporary social change in the region, as seen from its impact on the long-standing social institution of the ‘family’. The mutually constitutive effects of family and migration have spawned richly variegated research illustrating conceptual pathways such as ‘transnational family’ and ‘global householding’. The chapter discusses three interrelated strands of work in this arena. First, transnational families draw on ideologically laden imaginaries to give coherence to notions of belonging despite the physical dispersal of their members. Second, transnational families are also realised through lived experiences, where varying degrees of intimacy are negotiated across transnational spaces in the context of new communication technologies. Third, families may assume transnational morphologies, with the strategic intent of remittance generation as a means of economic survival or to accumulate social and economic capital so as to maximise social mobility for the family.
Loretta Baldassar, Majella Kilkey, Laura Merla and Raelene Wilding
As a result of the dominance of highly individualised, economistic and gendered analyses of migration and globalisation processes, family life has often been relegated to the ‘back stage’ of research on globalisation and migration. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between family, globalisation and migration through the lens of care, focusing specifically on the experiences of transnational families. We begin by examining how uneven globalisation processes produce ‘crises of care’, which migration can help alleviate. We move on to explore the transnational care strategies migrants and their kin members in the country of origin develop to maintain familyhood across borders, including when trapped in immobility. In such a context, the opportunities provided by information and communication technologies (ICTs) to maintain connections and to care across distance have become especially important. We conclude by arguing that mobility and internet access are thus key features of globalisation that require careful policy attention at both national and transnational levels.
The Swedish commuting pattern: a gravity model of commuting, with housing-expenditure and income constraints
Implications for Regions and Industries
Distance-friction parameters are often used to calculate accessibility and potential measures, used as explanatory variables in other studies. In this chapter, two forms of the constrained gravity model are estimated to capture proximity-preference and distance-friction parameters, the effect of house prices and wages present in the commuting pattern in Sweden. The first purpose is to investigate distance-friction parameters over time. This investigation is fruitful, since one major deviation from earlier results is observed. The second purpose is to investigate if adding wage and housing-expenditure constraints affect the distance-friction parameters. It turns out that these additional constraints have only minor effects on the distance-friction parameters. The main conclusion is that the distance-friction parameters change over time. In order to have accurate distance-friction parameters, such investigations should be repeated from now and again. In such investigations, the base form of the model is sufficient.
Succeeding generations, changing trajectories: influences of generational transition on local development experiences
Implications for Regions and Industries
Conflicts between generations and the effects of these challenges represent a specific field of research in economics, which seem to share a common focal point. They either focus on the problem of the generation gap in single economic organizations or on the problem of succession in family firms. In this chapter, however, I attempt to identify how local development experiences are influenced by the transitions from predecessor generations to their successors. The influences of generational transition on the local pathways of development are analysed through the local development experience of the city of Kayseri in Turkey. It is found that generational transition deeply affects local institutional structures, which sometimes results in institutional tensions that negatively influence economic development efforts, but sometimes results in construction of new institutions that create a more productive economic climate.
We review U.S. immigration history during the 1875–1920 period, when federal legislation imposed explicit qualitative restrictions on immigration. The Page Act of 1875 prohibited the entry of forced laborers, Asian women who might engage in prostitution, and convicted criminals. The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) halted Chinese immigration to the U.S. for ten years and prohibited Chinese residents of the U.S. from becoming citizens. In 1892, the Geary Act extended the ban for an additional decade, and required all Chinese living in the U.S. to carry permits. As expiration of the Geary Act neared, the Scott Act was passed, further extending the ban. Two years later, the ban on Chinese immigration to the U.S. was made permanent. Additional legislation also limited immigration, with arrivals from Northern and Western Europe continuing to receive preferential treatment. Even so, during this period, we see large numbers of immigrants arrive from Southern and Eastern Europe.
Marie McAuliffe and Alexandra Masako Goossens
By its very nature international migration is a transnational phenomenon that operates beyond the regulation of any one State. And yet, paradoxically, almost all governance of international migration globally rests with individual sovereign States. Historically, it could be argued that this situation presented few difficulties for modern nation-States given the considerable power that rested with them – political, economic, social and cultural – and an often highly circumscribed ability of people to migrate independently. There has been, however, a significant increase in international movement spurred by greater access to physical and virtual interconnectedness through accessible transportation links and rapid growth in telecommunications technology. Immigration and border management policies and practices have evolved rapidly. However, migrants themselves, along with other non-State actors, are less confined by geography than perhaps ever before. This chapter discusses the implications of transportation and telecommunications advances on the regulation of international migration in an era of increasing interconnectedness.
Mobility between the Maghreb and Europe has been a constant in the shared Euro–North African history. This mobility of people from Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco was infused in the late 1990s with a new current of mostly irregular migrants from sub-Saharan countries crossing the Maghreb en route to Europe. Since 2000, the regional migration dynamics between sub-Saharan countries, the Maghreb and the EU has undergone many changes linked to the deterioration of economic conditions in African regions and the security upheavals caused by the ‘Arab Spring’. This created an erratic flow of irregular migration along the ‘Western Mediterranean Route’between 2000 and 2006, which tapered off as migratory routes shifted to the Central Mediterranean. In 2011–2012 there was a new surge in movement along the Western Mediterranean Route from Syrian refugees that peaked in 2015–2016 with a ‘migratory explosion’ off the Tunisian and Libyan coasts before levelling off in a ‘migratory peace’ on the maritime Moroccan-Spanish side.