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Claudia Díaz-Peréz, Brian Wixted and J. Adam Holbrook

This chapter investigates the unique development of Vancouver’s fuel cell cluster, going back to the early 1980s. At that time, important national research and development programmes were launched and local pioneering firms acted as technology change agents. Vancouver developed a leadership position due to favourable living conditions and the importance attached worldwide to fuel cell technology and hydrogen, including considerable funding from the Canadian government and European car manufacturers. However, two conditions started to weaken the pre-commercial cluster, namely, competition from battery-electrical and hybrid vehicles, and a lack of fuelling infrastructure. Once support by the national government dwindled, the Vancouver cluster seemed not able to grow independently and reach maturity. Thus, the attractiveness of local conditions could not overcome basic competition between and among technologies. However, while the cluster is shrinking, car manufacturers are still investing and releasing prototypes, and new local initiatives building on existing leading edge technology are also being undertaken.

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Marloes Dignum

This chapter addresses local initiatives supported by city governments. It introduces urban platform intermediaries (UPIs) as strategic intermediaries enhancing the realization of sustainable energy aims, and it investigates their roles, actions and organizational position. With socio-technical transition as a starting point, a reflective framework to evaluate UPIs is developed, using two contrasting examples in Amsterdam: NewNRG and its spin-off ‘We’re Getting Chickens’ and Amsterdam Smart City and its project City-Zen. Amsterdam has high ambitions with regard to sustainable energy, but which is complicated by the need for degasification of the housing stock. With similar tasks of connecting actors, the initiatives show substantial differences in position. NewNRG has a bottom-up, grassroots character, and attracts mostly newcomers; however, it struggles to attract funding and organizational stability. ‘Established’ Amsterdam Smart City and its incumbent actors have the potential to upscale inventions and make innovations grow, but they are unlikely to initiate radical activities.

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Martina Fromhold-Eisebith and Ulrich Dewald

The focus of this chapter is on socio-technical niches and adoption of photovoltaics (PV) technology, presenting Germany as a case study. By taking a mainly institutional approach and by paying attention to different market segments, the bias in favour of urban areas in sustainability transition studies is avoided. Using eight dimensions, for example topographical nature, building and settlement features, economic structure, socio-economic entrepreneurship and policy agency, it is concluded that both urban and rural areas may enhance PV technology adoption, albeit in different ways. For example, rural areas can act as large-scale providers of ‘greenfield’ installations due to topographical/settlement characteristics. In the segment of civic corporate solar systems, as cooperatives, small-scale opportunities are provided for shareholder funding and local use of solar energy. A third segment, the small-scale roof-mounted systems, with home-owners and local installers as the main actors involved, is found in rural areas, medium-sized cities and in the fringes of larger cities.

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Razie Nejabat, Mozhdeh Taheri, Victor Scholten and Marina van Geenhuizen

This chapter deals with small high-technology firms introducing sustainable energy inventions to the market. The focus is on university spin-offs, which typically show weak skills in management and marketing, but strong technology skills – in this chapter, solar photovoltaics, wind energy, biomass and hydro-power. A simplified conceptual model is explored by focusing on institutional aspects (countries) and network access as well as firms’ entrepreneurial orientation. The exploration of time to market draws on a selected sample of spin-offs in northwest Europe using rough-set analysis. The results show that the highest probability for quick market introduction occurs in an ‘innovation leader’ country (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and among spin-offs’ involved in multiple networks, followed by those with a practical orientation and access to substantial investment. There are no differences between entrepreneurial ecosystems in metropolitan areas and remote/small urban places. Rather, the results indicate a trend for compensation in ‘thin regions’ through long-distance networks and ‘workplace learning’.

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Philip Cooke

This chapter examines and demonstrates superior regional innovation policy making based on non-linear, lateral and interactive governance. The first section introduces basic concepts of resilience, modeled on its original application in understanding ecosystem behavior under stress, translated into a more suitable economic geography context. There follows a worked, theoretically derived application of resilience theory to qualitative case analyses of responses to resilience shock by regions in Portugal. Here, severe economic crisis was the test of resilience. Innovative adaptability, emphasizing transversality, not particularity, tended to predominate. In conclusion, it is shown how, by exploration of regional and inter-regional “transversality,” these regions avoided “global controller” (EU) advocacy of demonstrably reckless “specialization.” This was achieved in the face of imposed austerity policies from EU and national state in response to the global financial crash of 2008 as it affected the fate of their Regional Innovation Strategies (RIS3).

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Marina van Geenhuizen, J. Adam Holbrook and Mozhdeh Taheri

This chapter presents the theme, theoretical approaches and overview of the chapters in the book. The theme is the contribution of cities (their actors) to increased sustainability in social-technical systems, eventually by accelerating sustainability improvements. The selected systems are energy, transport and healthcare. Cities may act as the cradle of key inventions, as places of up-scaling and commercialization and as places of quick adoption, though few individual cities take up all these roles. Next, several urban innovation theories are introduced, including agglomeration and cluster theories, and the relational (collaboration) approach, with the aim to ‘position’ the chapters. Specific attention is given to the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Complementary approaches are institutional and governance perspectives, in particular with respect to cities acting as institutional innovators. A final approach is the evolutionary approach, as invention, up-scaling, commercialization and adoption of new technology are concerned with long time-lines and manifold uncertainties.

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Paula Horrigan and Mallika Bose

The chapter argues for a re-professionalising of landscape architecture embracing the tenets of democratic professionalism and serving landscape democracy’s purposes. The authors provide a theoretical overview of Dzur’s democratic professionalism and offer it as a guiding framework for furthering democratic professionalism in landscape architecture. Evidence suggests that landscape architecture has indeed been undergoing a turn toward democratic professionalisation helped along by the theories and practices of community design and placemaking. These two approaches embody the democratic processes and purposes distinguishing the democratic from the social trustee models of professionalism prevalent in landscape architecture. Further evidence is found in the narrative practitioner profiles of a small subset of community-engaged educators who are playing a role in landscape architecture’s re-professionalising. The profiles are part of a larger ongoing research project and provide insights regarding how landscape architecture might continue to navigate towards democratic professionalism in education, research and practice.

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Deni Ruggeri

How can stories be employed in the community development process in order to better understand, analyse, plan and implement sustainable development and landscape democracy? And how can storytelling move a community from inaction to collective, democratic action? This chapter focuses on the Italian new town of Zingonia to illustrate the relevance of stories as structures of social and communal identity, as a window into a place’s native wisdom, and as tools for urban resiliency. The 1960s Italian community stands as a critical case study of a storytelling-based, participatory approach to community redevelopment. The goal of this digital ethnography is to represent a rich account of the challenges and opportunities Modernist communities face as they attempt to rewrite their core story into one of democratic landscape change.

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Marina van Geenhuizen and Qing Ye

This chapter investigates the conditions for mass-manufacturing in the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry in China since the early 2000s, specifically the cities’ role of ‘institutional entrepreneur’. China’s PV industry has grown tremendously thanks to a match between policy incentivization of local industry and rising global demand for sustainable energy. Several cities gained leadership in mass-manufacturing and this is illustrated in the chapter through case studies of two companies, Suntech Power and Yingli Green, in Wuxi and Baoding, respectively. In particular, Wuxi can be seen as an institutional innovator, as evidenced by its recruitment policy of Chinese talent from overseas and refined interaction with provincial and national policy in financial incentivization of domestic companies. Today, China leads in acceleration of adoption of solar energy in Europe and US, as it hosts about 70 per cent of global production of solar cells/panels. However, since around 2012, the industry has also seen restructuring to increase product quality and improve efficiency.

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Charles Geisler

As global sea levels rise in response to climate change, coastal inhabitants will vacate their communities and seek security inland, with implications for state coherence and governance. Recent work suggests accelerated sea level changes beyond standard predictions, with tumultuous consequences. The present research addresses the question: will ‘future-proofing’ interventions by governments facing crowded landscapes alter democracy as we know it? In the coming century, in one scenario, a subdued but sustained tsunami will produce a coastal surge zone, where seawaters and people are on the move. This contrasts with the interior shatter zone, inland destinations where up to ten per cent of the world population will relocate. Democracy may become problematic in shatter zones not only because of competition for space and resources, but because of significant barriers to entry arrayed against resettlement. Should resulting disorder evoke soft martial law and evermore dirigist decision-making across landscapes, shatter zones will be proving grounds for new democracies, or perhaps post-democracies.