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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

We would like to acknowledge the people who have been very helpful in illustrating the book with their written personal, concrete and professional experience in regards to virtual teams for our book’s Part V Case Studies. We warmly thank them for their contribution, time, application and enthusiasm. Pierre Rosius, human resources director at Thomson Reuters, kindly accepted to share his experience of virtual teams. Thomson Reuters has implemented a new strategy and a new operating model in their Sales function. Pierre Rosius analyzes the evolution of that organization and the impact of virtual teaming in an international context from a human resources point of view. He highlights the virtual teaming challenges and the consequences in Thomson Reuter’s process. Kim Poldner experienced an enthusiastic approach for virtual teaming through her online engagement in Eco Fashion World and a small dispersed team. Cultural differences, the di_culties to be ‘all connected’ whilst sharing a common goal at a distance, computer-mediated communication, and the requisite team cohesion levels: are some of the real barriers faced by Kim. She underlines the main considerations faced in a small virtual team, which is very instructive in comparison to larger international company structures. Frederic Reiser realized as a virtual team member, that virtual teaming requires adapted processes especially when virtual teams are implemented together with organizational restructuring. Working process, new structure and adequate behaviours confronted with cultural diversity may foster unexpected results and may endanger the success of a strategy. Therefore, effective preparation for virtual teaming should not be underestimated. Chloé Guerin Gosselin, a student in teaching history and geography, has chosen an e-learning program offered by the University of Quebec at Trois-Rivieères. Based on her experience, Chloé presents the advantages and challenges of virtual classrooms, virtual teamwork and online courses. She emphasizes that e-learning requires adapted behaviours and pedagogy techniques; in order to ensure effective and optimal teaching and learning outcomes.
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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

The degree of satisfaction plays a key role in the levels of affective performance within an organization, a team or among virtual team members. Affective performance occurs at the organizational, team and individual level also. Similarly to teamwork performance, affective performance is challenged by different factors, such as, the complexity to evaluate satisfaction within a virtual context, and the di_culty to find appropriate measurement systems. This chapter analyzes the impact of key drivers, such as, trust existing among team members, the team members’ attitudes and interactions, the different styles of leadership, and the way conflicts are resolved.
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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

This chapter clarifies the relationship between the organizational infrastructure and the level of virtuality within that organization. It demonstrates that an appropriate environment, based on corporate infrastructure, is recommended to obtain e_cient virtual teaming. An accurate evaluation of virtual team inputs is necessary to understand the various levers, the type of resources, and supports to be implemented when establishing a virtual work environment. The purpose is to create external and internal effective alliances. We present the possible framework of an organization willing to develop its global processes that use virtuality in their internal and external relations. We specify the six main elements involved in virtuality and their impact in the organization.
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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

Globalization has become a current topic across the world and influenced international and business relationships. Virtual teams have been considered as a tool used as a means to benefit from the economic changes across the world. Conventional ways of working evolve into processes becoming gradually more virtual. Advances in technology support change and this largely contributes to a progression: pushing the industrial environment towards a digital world. As a result, organizational infrastructure, working pace, along with managerial approaches, and behaviours have also changed, which necessitates theinternational human resources management (IHRM) function to adapt its own human resources (HR) approach.
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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

This chapter defines the semantics, and clarifies the terms and notions addressed in the book. Researchers have very often explained the complexity of virtual teams in comparison with conventional teams. They approach virtuality through its level of dispersion that is spatial, organizational, social and/or functional, and, then, focus on the differences in comparison with face-to-face interactions. The variable degree of virtuality is considered too. The result of the research enables a gradual approach to a deeper structured appreciation of the attributes, boundaries and processes of virtual teams, including the involved critical factors.
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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

This chapter draws some final conclusions and makes some valuable recommendations.
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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

We underline the importance of team attributes and explain why theyare significant for organizations. First, the reason to implement virtual teams in the organization needs to be clear, as well as the objectives and missions conferred to the team. Thus, the virtual team composition, the suitable types of team and tasks to meet the team goals can be more effectively selected and implemented within the organizational environment.
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Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon

This chapter explores the key role of the managerial process that embraces virtual team leadership and conflict management. It explains why e-leadership requires some different capabilities from conventional team leadership. More specifically, this chapter defines our understanding of e-leadership toward virtuality. It analyzes the perception of e-leadership by the virtual team members, and, the roles, responsibilities and competencies of e-leadership. The appropriate management styles for certain types of virtual teams are addressed along with their implications for effectiveness.